Blood vessels regulate fetal brain growth

Millions of neurons are generated during fetal development from progenitor cells that reside inside the embryonic brain More »

Species are always important

This review is based on the premise that all species are important to life on earth even if the exact role or value of a species has not been formally documented More »

Virus chainmail: protective and porous metal-organic framework grown on a virus

Biomineralization describes a process of programmable accumulation, concentration, and construction of inorganic ions regulated by organisms to form both amorphous More »

Risky attraction to the familiar smell of disease

Many animals remember smells, sights, and sounds (‘cues’) they encounter as juveniles, like the smell of nearby individuals, or their environment. More »


Decrypting the secret of Swarna Bhasma, an ancient Ayurvedic/Sidha medicine. Swarna Bhasma, ancient Ayurvedic medicine, meets human cells

Ayurveda is an indigenous medical system of natural healing, with roots in folk medicine, in practice on the Indian subcontinent since at least 5000 years. It adopts a holistic approach towards health, emphasizing the connection between the

Unregulated oxygen levels in mammalian cell culture changes cell physiology

As aerobic organisms we continuously utilize oxygen from the surrounding environment which ultimately participates in the formation of useful bioenergetic intermediates. Approximately 21% of the air we breathe is composed of oxygen, but the quantity of oxygen

Does inadequate sleep hours and snoring relate to chronic disease?

Sleep is one of the fundamental requirements for survival of human beings. Yet an outrageous number of population neglect its’ importance. Although most people tend to think that lack of sleep (<7 hours) is more detrimental to

Muscle wasting with chronic diseases: Can Sirtuins fix the problem?

Prognosis of a chronic disease worsens when associated with uncontrolled muscle loss. Muscle wasting can become the last nail in the coffin when accompanied with chronic diseases like cancer, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infective

Niobium oxide cluster ions grow to have more compact structures than vanadium oxides

Compositions and geometrical structures of niobium oxide cluster ions, NbmOn± (m ≤ 12), were studied comparing with the lighter Group 5 counterpart vanadium oxide cluster ions by ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS). As a result of collision

Horny skin layer enhances the skin barrier function and water bonding with increasing age

Human skin consist of three layers – epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue. The main age–related changes in the skin are well investigated for the dermis and include the delay of bio fluids’ microcirculation, reduced synthesis of extracellular

Menthol makes harder to quit nicotine-seeking behavior

Even though almost all smokers want to quit smoking and have made attempts to do so, the majority eventually relapses and continues to smoke. In the United States, in contrast to the overall significant progress in reducing

What pH at the sites of calcification of an octocoral tells us

Corals are marine organisms which elaborate calcium carbonate skeletons, a process known as biomineralization or calcification. This process involves the regulation of ions at the site of calcification together with the synthesis of organic molecules such as

How can we understand persistent pain?

Acute pain evoked by tissue injury makes biologic sense and can be explained mechanistically in great detail. It is much more difficult to understand why pain so often persists after healing of an injury, or even arises

B-vitamins over-consumption may be the cause of the increased prevalence of obesity and diabetes

Obesity and type 2 diabetes have been a major health issue in the United States. It is during the past few decades that obesity and type 2 diabetes have rapidly reached epidemic levels not only in adults

Ultra Quick sample preparation prior to GC-MS based metabolomics

Metabolomics is a comprehensive study of low molecular weight compounds in biological samples and has been applied to wide range of research areas from medical to food analysis. For the analysis of metabolites, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS)

Statin therapy makes things worse for alcohol drinkers

High cholesterol levels in humans represent a risk factor for life-threatening cardio/cerebrovascular conditions, including heart attack and stroke. It is estimated that nearly 94.6 million, or 40 % of American adults, have total blood cholesterol levels above

How healthy the Indian leopards are?

Carnivores face a continuous threat for their survival from pathogens, indirectly resulting from anthropogenic factors such as human population expansion, habitat loss or its alteration and climate change leading to their endangerment in the wild. These effects

The herbicide glyphosate activates oxidative metabolism in the weed model plant Arabidopsis thaliana

For farmers, glyphosate is a very familiar chemical compound because it is one of the broad-spectrum herbicides more used worldwide in agriculture. Even it is also applied in non-cultivated areas to keep the growth of weeds under

Evolution of a sucker: Functional principles of traps in carnivorous bladderworts (Utricularia, Lentibulariaceae)

Certain plants lure, capture, kill and digest animal prey. Bladderworts (Utricularia spp.) comprise more than 240 species and constitute the largest genus of such carnivorous plants. They can be found almost worldwide in a variety of different

Isolation of stable monomeric organo aluminum radicals

Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth’s crust and its numerous chemical derivatives have various applications in organic as well in organometallic synthesis. The oxidation state +III is thermodynamically favorable for aluminum, while the chemistry