Mapping red nucleus connections in humans by using dMRI and tractography

Human brain is an enormous and complex network. Central to current scenario on brain networks is the concept of the connectome More »

Curiosity and flexibility help birds to master rapid environmental change

Birds are one of the most mobile organisms on earth due to their ability to fly. This allows them to use areas far apart for breeding and non-breeding More »

Virus chainmail: protective and porous metal-organic framework grown on a virus

Biomineralization describes a process of programmable accumulation, concentration, and construction of inorganic ions regulated by organisms to form both amorphous More »

Species are always important

This review is based on the premise that all species are important to life on earth even if the exact role or value of a species has not been formally documented More »


Spindle associated membrane protein 1 (Samp1) in muscle differentiation

Skeletal muscles, the most common type of muscle in the body, areresponsible for voluntary movements. Skeletal muscles are formed in a processcalled myogenesis (differentiation of muscles). During myogenesis a single-nucleus-myoblast(undifferentiated muscle cell) fuses with adjacent myoblasts to

Cholesterol manipulation switches the production of “toxic Aβ” to “protective Aβ”

The amyloid hypothesismaintains that the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is driven by theproduction and accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in the brain. Consequently, many therapeutic strategies to reduce Aβ production have been examined. However, as Aβ

Polarized light therapy: Illuminating immunity

What is it?: Light has been used as an alternative mode for the treatment of diseases, since the ancient Egyptians basked in the sun to restore their energy. Phototherapies are modern treatments in which light is used

A new strategy against cancer cells. Targeting the Rho-GTPases interactions: The case of the new compound 1A116

For the last decades scientist have been working hard to find cancer´s Achilles heel to design and develop more specific and efficacious therapeutic strategies for cancer. It has become clear that altered cell signaling is a key

Estimating effects of new psychoactive substances (NPS) based on in vitro neurotoxicity data

The use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is increasing and currently > 600 NPS have been reported. However, limited information on neuropharmacological and toxicological effects of NPS is available, hampering risk characterization. We reviewed the literature on

Bioartificial liver constructs

The liver with high regenerative capability performs a complex array of synthetic, metabolic, immunologic and detoxification functions to regulate the physiological homeostasis of the human body. Viral infections, drug induced liver injury, hepatocellular carcinoma, autoimmune disorders, alcoholic

The antibiotics of tomorrow: from enzyme Lego blocks to customized enzybiotics

Antibiotics play a key role in the treatment of bacterial infections and have saved millions of lives since their invention. Moreover, they allowed the development of complex surgeries and cancer treatments. However, already in 1945, after receiving

The role of oxidative stress in Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a major health concern that affects people no matter their gender, race, or socio-economic background is. In type 2 diabetes, a person’s body stops responding efficiently to insulin after a meal. This desensitization

Impact of digestion on the transport of macromolecule loaded nanoemulsion through intestine epithelium

The oral route, being the most convenient route for patients, has been extensively explored for the delivery of large molecular weight hydrophilic drugs. Oral delivery of macromolecules such as peptides and proteins has been a challenge due

Origin and fate of radionuclides in Swiss soils

Soils profiles from protected recharge fields used for drinking water production were drilled and analysed for radionuclides, such as radiocesium (137Cs), radiostrontium (90Sr) and plutonium (239+240Pu). Inventories and distribution of the radionuclides were compared with an uncultivated

Optimization of multi-omic genome-scale models

Metabolism is the set of biochemical reactions in a cell that maintain its living state. As these reactions are essential, it is vital that metabolic networks in all living organisms are well-characterized. This can be achieved by

Molecular mechanisms of gastrointestinal disorders caused by general anesthesia

Nowadays it is impossible to imagine surgery procedures without general anesthesia. From the wide variety of general anaesthetics both intravenous (such as propofol, ketamine, fentanyl etc.) and inhalation anesthetics (such as isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane etc.) are some

Oncogenic role of CircPVT1 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding RNAs that have recently shown to behave as gene regulators in eukaryotic cells, extending our previous knowledge regarding the diversity and complexity of the transcriptome. Nowadays, circRNAs have

Nerve conduction inhibition by various antidepressants used to alleviate chronic pain

Information of nociceptive stimuli given to the periphery is transmitted through the dorsal root to the superficial spinal dorsal horn, and then flows to the primary-sensory area of the cerebrum through the brainstem and thalamus, causing pain

New inflammatory properties of nanoparticles (NPs): NPs can alter the biology of human eosinophils

The term nanoparticles (NPs) refer to particles with a very small size ranging in the nanometer scale. One nanometer (nm) is a unit of measure corresponding to a billionth of a meter. In general, the definition of

Shedding new light on the causes and treatment of chronic unexplained stomach symptoms

Across the world, about one in six people suffer from chronic stomach symptoms, including feeling very full and uncomfortable or bloated after eating, being unable to finish a normal sized meal and experiencing after meals frequent stomach

Aflatoxin B1: a foodborne contaminant which impairs sperm quality and fertilization competence

The gradual decline in fertility of human and farm animals over the past few decades coincides with intensive industrial and agricultural development. Multiple environmental factors affect sperm function and fertility, among them are aflatoxins, poisonous byproducts of

Genomics-based selective breeding of forest trees

The selective breeding of forest trees is a long-term endeavor requiring sustained organizational and financial commitments, and follows the recurrent selection scheme with protracted repeated cycles of selection, mating and testing. This process encounters numerous challenges including

Artifacts in AFM topography images of TMD monolayers

Initially motivated by work with graphene, the broad class of two dimensional (2D) materials has generated enormous interest. Monolayers and heterostructures of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted intense investigation as the long awaited 2D semiconductor analogs

Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates may modify fetal adipokines

Bisphenol A and phthalates are widely detected in human urine, blood, breast milk, and amniotic fluid. Bisphenol A is widely used in polycarbonate products, such as epoxy resins used as coatings on the inside of many food