Monthly Archives: May 2018

Bacteria with a split personality outsmart the immune system

Bacteria, whether beneficial or harmful, must adapt to changes in their environment in order to survive.  This is especially true for bacteria that reside within the human respiratory tract.  The bacterium nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, or NTHI, asymptomatically

Is there a link between hematologic malignancy and ischemic optic neuropathy?

Ischemic optic neuropathy is the most common acute optic neuropathy in patients over the age of 50. The ischemic injury may be localized to the anterior part of the optic nerve – anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION),

Back pain research: Skirting around the edges?

Low back pain is the leading cause of disability worldwide. The fact that it is seldom possible to identify a specific nociceptive cause is thought to be a major barrier to its successful management. At the same

How the seasnake lost its bands

Across Europe, the Industrial Revolution of the early 1800s blackened the trees with soot. That shift in color exerted strong evolutionary pressure on many species of insects that were camouflaged against natural tree-trunks but very obvious (to

Asymmetric vestibular stimulation reveals persistent disruption of motion perception in unilateral vestibular lesions

A unilateral vestibular lesion (UVL), typically due to acute vestibular neuritis, induces vertigo, imbalance, asymmetry of the vestibule-ocular reflex (VOR) and problems with the perception of self motion. This study examined the question of whether the disruption

Lower TSH and higher free thyroxine predict incidence of prostate but not other common cancers

The pituitary gland signals production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland through secretion of thyrotropin (TSH). There are two types of thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid gland. These include thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyroinine (T3). These

Biomarker panel for detecting early pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most prevalent type of pancreatic cancer, is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the USA. Most of the PDAC patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease and their

PREMM: A mobile application to drive your own hereditary cancer prevention

In the recent publication, ‘Community Practice Implementation of a Self-administered Version of PREMM1,2,6 to Assess Risk for Lynch Syndrome’, Dr. Luba and colleagues at the Monterey Bay GI Consultants Medical Group in Monterey, California, present the use

New psychoactive substances and drugs of abuse inhibit neuronal activity

New psychoactive substances (NPS), also known as ‘legal highs’, ‘bath salts’ or ‘research chemicals’, appeared on the drug market around a decade ago. Even though they account for only a small proportion of the market, NPS encompass

SERS substrates by vacuum-free dealloying of Au-based metallic glass ribbons

Plasmonics has become an important photonic device due to the advancement of fabrication technologies in recent decades. It has many applications including solar cells, nonlinear optics, metamaterials, photocatalysts, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), etc. Among those, SERS

Calcium ion by replacing magnesium ion unravels an unexpected role for the mitochondrial F1FO-ATPase

The F1FO-ATPase/synthase is universally known as a complex enzyme machinery which, embedded by the FO portion in the inner mitochondrial membrane and the catalytic F1 sector protruding in the matrix, matches the transmembrane proton flux which occurs

Costly reputation maintenance behavior is a building block of human cooperation

Reputation plays a crucial role in human cooperation. This is because people tend to cooperate with someone with a good reputation. For example, if Anne knows that Bob helped Cathy before, and Bob is now in need,

Better implants with stem cells

Prosthetic implants are used day-to-day to treat edentulous people and patients in need of skeletal reconstructions. The history of prosthetic dental implants dates back thousands of years, with the early civilizations using seashells and stones to replace

Oriented attachment determines a shape of nanoparticles in gas phase

Until two decades ago, the process of crystallization from a supersaturated solution was assumed to proceed exclusively by molecule-by-molecule addition. However, some recent pioneering theoretical and experimental studies have revealed that crystals can grow by some other,

Acute ischemic stroke: An urgent call for help and funding!

In humans, acute ischemic stroke is the primarily result of a blood-clot that moves toward the brain and blocks one or more important blood vessels that supply blood, oxygen, and nutrients to brain tissue (Fig. 1), causing

Genital gender-affirming surgery: a history from the shadows to the forefront

Gender dysphoria is characterized by a discrepancy between an individual’s gender at birth and the gender with which they identify themselves. Gender-affirming surgery encompasses a variety of procedures that aim to alleviate gender dysphoria. These are broadly