Non-medicated milk replacer containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens reduces intestinal pathogenic bacteria counts in dairy calves and adult dogs

Waste milk is not suitable for human intake; however, it contains essential nutrients that can support calf growth. About 22–62 kg of waste milk is wasted per cow yearly in the USA, leading to a drastic economic loss to the dairy industries. In fact, feeding raw non-saleable waste milk may pose serious risks towards the transmission of infectious pathogens, such as Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Mycoplasma, and Campylobacter sp. Currently, non-medicated milk replacer (NMR) is widely used to replace whole milk for dairy calf feeding and is manufactured using vitamins, antibiotics, coccidiostats, probiotics, and ionophores as additives to support calf growth enormously.

Probiotic supplementation may induce the intestinal and ruminal microorganisms, and reduce the enteropathogens. Probiotics confer a health benefit to cows and dogs by regulating microbial homeostasis in the intestine, stabilizing the gastrointestinal barrier, producing bacteriocins, boosting immune system, and interfering with the potentiality of pathogens to bind to the intestinal wall. Moreover, the normal composition of the intestinal microflora in dogs can be altered by hectic conditions, such as oral administration of antibiotics, gastrointestinal infections, dietary changes, and weaning. Previous study demonstrated that a combination of B. amyloliquefaciens and E. faecium decreases the concentration of Clostridium sp. The ability of B. amyloliquefaciens to survive through the digestive process, germination within the digestive tract, and defecation via faecal matter makes it the most promising probiotic bacterium. B. amyloliquefaciens helps boosting the efficiency of absorption and digestion of nutrients by producing extracellular enzymes like cellulase, proteases, metalloproteases, and amylases. Furthermore, bacteriocins produced by B. amyloliquefaciens exhibit anti-pathogenic activity. In recent times, a number of studies have established that dietary supplementation of B. amyloliquefaciens boost intestinal microflora, gut morphology, and nutrient digestibility, thereby enhancing the growth rate and feed efficiency. These positive effects indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens could also improve the health status of calves and dogs.

In this investigation, 2 experiments were carried out to evaluate the bactericidal impacts of B. amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 on the shedding of faecal pathogenic bacteria in dairy calves (Experiment 1) and in adults dogs (experiment 2). In experiment 1, a completely randomized design was used to investigate the faecal bacteria profile of Holstein dairy calves fed with either pasteurized waste milk (PWM; n = 9) or a formulated NMR (n = 9) for 60 d. The NMR was supplemented with active probiotic B. amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940. In experiment 2, addition of B. amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 was carried out in two stages. The first stage started from day 7–37, and the second from day 44–71. The assessment of faecal score was measured on day 22, 37, 42, 57, 71, and 77 to determine the texture of the stools. Calves received PWM consumed (P < 0.05) more starter feed between day 16 and day 45. The calves fed NMR had more moisture faeces and less cough reflux than the PWM-calves. Feeding NMR to calves increased faecal Klebsiella oxytoca and Proteus vulgaris counts in comparison to PWM-calves. The administration of B. amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 to the dog diet has no significant effect on the hardness of the stool. Meanwhile, bacilli count increased while coliforms count decreased upon B. amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 administration, thereby revealing that B. amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 survived the gastrointestinal passage and rapidly colonized the dog intestine, which could positively affect the metabolism and composition of the intestinal microflora. Findings showed the auspicious role of B. amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 as anti-pathogenic agent against the intestinal pathogenic bacteria present in dairy calves and adult dogs. The overall results indicated that NMR containing B. amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 could be used as a replacement product to substitute PWM and improve the shedding of intestinal bacteria without affecting calves and dogs’ health.

Paulina Vazquez-Mendoza 1, Mona M.M. Elghandour 2, Peter Adeniyi Alaba 3, Pedro Sánchez-Aparicio 2, María Uxúa Alonso-Fresán 2, Ameer Khusro 4,
Alberto Barbabosa-Pliego 2, Abdelfattah Z.M. Salem 2

1Centro Regional de Educación Superior de la Costa Chica, Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, Florencio Villarreal, Guerrero, Mexico
2Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Mexico
3Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
4Research Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Loyola College, Chennai, India

Publication

Antimicrobial and bactericidal impacts of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 on fecal shedding of pathogenic bacteria in dairy calves and adult dogs.
Vazquez-Mendoza P, Elghandour MMM, Alaba PA, Sánchez-Aparicio P, Alonso-Fresán MU, Barbabosa-Pliego A, Salem AZM
Microb Pathog. 2018 Jan

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