Blood vessels regulate fetal brain growth

Millions of neurons are generated during fetal development from progenitor cells that reside inside the embryonic brain More »

Species are always important

This review is based on the premise that all species are important to life on earth even if the exact role or value of a species has not been formally documented More »

Virus chainmail: protective and porous metal-organic framework grown on a virus

Biomineralization describes a process of programmable accumulation, concentration, and construction of inorganic ions regulated by organisms to form both amorphous More »

Risky attraction to the familiar smell of disease

Many animals remember smells, sights, and sounds (‘cues’) they encounter as juveniles, like the smell of nearby individuals, or their environment. More »


Physical deformities in fruit flies on long term exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles

Nano is a unit prefix meaning “one billionth, derived from Greek word nánnos means “dwarf”. The potential of matter at nano scale was given by Dr. Richard Feynman in his lecture “There is plenty of space at the bottom”. His idea

Selective intra-dinucleotide interactions and periodicities of bases separated by K sites

For testing neutrality or selectiveness in theories of molecular evolution, I decided to study the distribution of the two bases of a dinucleotide; the bases may be separated by 0, 1, 2 … K nucleotide sites. With

The relationship between cranberries ingestion and the reduction of the incidence of urinary tract infections

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common and are among the most frequent medical conditions requiring outpatient treatment. Approximately 80% of all UTIs occur in women, and 20% to 30% of women with a UTI will have a

Chronic myeloid leukaemia: a success story in cancer therapy

Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a haematological malignancy caused by a chromosomal translocation that places the c-ABL oncogene, normally located on the long arm of chromosome 9, under the control of the breakpoint control region (BCR) on

Acylation of soluble polysaccharides in a biphasic system catalyzed by a CE2 acetyl esterase

Acylated sugars attain altered or improved properties comparing to their native form and thus present great commercial significance due to the fact that they can be used in several applications, such as biosurfactants in biomedicine, foods, detergents

Molecular origins of convergence and uniqueness of protein structures!

Protein folding, tagged as an NP hard problem is the process by which a protein sequence acquires its biologically functional native structure, with a high-fidelity rate. Proteins are essential components of all body tissues, muscles and act

Tail regeneration in lizard is driven by key genes of the Wnt-pathway

The importance of lizards as models to analyze the process of organ regeneration is relevant since, differently from the classical amphibian models, these vertebrates are amniotes adapted to the terrestrial environment, therefore closer to mammals and humans.

When your medication backfires and calls in the wolves

Your immune system is like an army inside your body. It is constantly on guard to protect you against attacks from the outside, such as infections. It also protects you from attacks from inside, such as cancer

“I forgot what you thought” : theory of mind abilities in Alzheimer’s disease

“Theory of mind” or ToM is a critical aspect of what is called social cognition, a set of neurocognitive processes allowing us to have normal social interactions. Named because humans are assumed to make “theory” on other’s

Early pregnancy regulates Toll-like receptors expression in ovine trophoblasts and peripheral blood leucocytes

Interferon-tau (IFN-t), released from the embryonic trophoblasts, is the first embryonic signal in ruminants and drives the process of maternal recognition of pregnancy. It possesses critical functions such as regulation of prostaglandin secretion, conceptus elongation, immunological tolerance,

Anti-CD20 treatment shows changes not only in B-lymphocytes but also in T-subpopulations

In renal pathology, Rituximab has been proven to be useful in the treatment of some primary glomerulopathies, vasculitis with renal involvement, severe lupus with kidney disease, and especially in renal transplantation, where it is applied during the

The vision thief

Glaucoma is often called the sneak thief of vision because it can develop without obvious symptoms. Although some risk factors, such as high intraocular pressure, are apparent, how these factors contribute to the disease is by no

How does histamine make it hard to breathe?

Histamine is a chemical substance that can be released in the lungs to cause narrowing of the bronchial tubes and difficulty breathing. Airway smooth muscle cells in the bronchioles (small airways) of the lung can contract or

What happened in the dental offices in the 1970s and -80s?

Copper has a long history as an ingredient in mercury based tooth fillings, so called dental amalgams. The old type of copper amalgam (approx. 70% mercury and 30% copper) was provided in the form of tablets and

Assaying protein-protein interaction by the complementation of firefly luciferase catalytic steps

Protein – protein interaction (PPI) assay is a key technology for various fields from basic molecular biology to diagnosis and drug discovery. Previously, PPI assays based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)

Nuclear shuttling of key methionine cycle enzymes in acute liver injury

Important metabolic enzymes have been classically ascribed to certain subcellular locations, where they perform their well-known function. In the last decades, several technological advances have allowed detection of these proteins in new locations, performing either their known