Tag Archives: brain

Can EBI2 receptor protect brain cells (oligodendrocytes) from dying during disease?

EBI2 receptor in different brain cells and its role in brain disease

The four major brain-specific cell types in the brain are: (i) neurons, which transmit and process information via electrical signals, (ii) oligodendrocytes, which insulate neuronal axons with fatty sheets called myelin to ensure fast and complete electrical

A tipping point in the size of human groups for successful cooperation in social-ecological systems

How large should be a human group to succeed in collaborating effectively? From a theoretical standpoint, social sciences teach that the larger is the group the harder is to cooperate. So far there was no convincing evidence

Statins: Good for the heart, but do they impact the brain?

High cholesterol, termed hyperlipidemia, is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, keeping cholesterol levels low through diet and exercise has proven benefits for reducing heart disease risk. For adults who cannot meet their cholesterol targets through

The choroid plexus: a new player in the (microbiome-)gut-brain axis

The healthy human gut microbiome contains 100 trillion bacteria, outnumbering the amount of human cells by a factor of 10. These bacteria are important in several crucial processes in our body. Hence, changes in the composition, caused

A powerful tool for the study of CD4 T cells in malaria

Although aimed at controlling invading pathogens, immune responses can sometimes be harmful to the host. Responses against the blood stage of malaria are an example of this: while B cells are activated and produce useful antibodies that

Why iron and copper may be harmful to the aging brain

Similar to other organs, brain function declines with age. Furthermore, age is the single greatest risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease as well as other neurodegenerative diseases. Both iron and copper increase in the brain with aging and

Subjectivity and molecular brain topology

It has become increasingly recognized that something essential is missing in the traditional interpretation of brain signals if this builds solely on the computer-metaphor (‘the brain as a computer’). In the frame of so-called ‘neural field models’

Novel targets for neuroprotection in neonatal brain injury

Developing brain is highly susceptible to injury. Together, prematurity and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) account for 50% of global mortality and significant neurodevelopmental impairment in survivors. HIE is a clinically defined syndrome of disturbed neurologic function due

How a cellular samurai may be linked to autism

Inside cells, a highly dynamic and ever-changing cytoskeleton network determines cell shape (permanent or temporary), powers movement (intracellularly or on a substrate), aids cell division and segregation of chromosomes in daughter cells, and supports cellular extensions like

Analysis of school traumatic brain injury policy content

Millions of children and teens are affected by sports- and recreation-related traumatic brain injuries (TBI) annually. To help reduce the effects of TBIs in youth sports, between 2009 and 2014, all 50 states and the District of

Alzheimer’s risk gene weakens brain cell’s garbage disposal system

APOE ε4 is the most common genetic risk factor for development of Alzheimer’s disease. Having two copies of this gene (one from the mother and one from the father) increases a person’s relative risk to as much

Unraveling the need of vitamin E during early embryonic brain development

During early vertebrate development, the dorsal ectoderm forms the primordium of the central nervous system along the rostro-caudal axis: the neural tube. The closure of the neural tube is a complex process that depends on adequate genetic

Should repetitive behaviours be discouraged in older children with intellectual disabilities?

The importance of considering level of development when understanding the behaviour of individuals with intellectual disability: the case of repetitive behaviours and restricted interests. Children with intellectual disabilities develop more slowly and to a lower ceiling level

How does your brain control interference from irrelevant information?

Given the continuous flux of visual information that competes for our attention in the everyday world, some form of attentional selection is needed to allow us to focus on what is relevant and ignore distracting information. This

A novel PET radiotracer for molecular imaging of the α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are a family of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast synaptic transmission in the brain. These receptors are homo- or hetero-pentameric combinations of the α and the β subunits which each subtypes

Incretin hormones and brain microglia team up to regulate brain homeostasis

The entire human body is made up of many complicated cells, processes, and interactions. As scientific discoveries are made, it becomes increasingly more evident how multidimensional and interconnected all of the biological systems and pathways of the

Astrocytic modulation of brain waves

The human brain contains two major cell populations: neurons and glia. While neurons can propagate electrical signals, known as action potentials, glial cells remain electrically unexcitable. For this reason, for many years, they were thought to merely

Confabulation: What is associated with its rise and fall? A study in brain injury

Confabulation is a relatively rare but debilitating memory disorder. It affects mainly (but not exclusively) brain injury survivors. Patients with confabulations have false memories, for example believing something happened to them which never in fact took place,

Insulin and brain glucose handling

It has long been known that the brain abundantly expresses insulin receptors in all its major areas, indicating that this vital hormone controlling general glucose metabolism is important for brain function. However, mechanisms of neuro-vascular coupling at

A quick, simple, effective screening test for concussion

Concussion is a real prospect in many physical contact sports and physically demanding sports. Immediately after a concussion the brain doesn’t act normally. Typical issues for a person with concussion are confusion, difficulty responding to emotional situations