Tag Archives: DNA

Is inversion symmetry of chromosomes a law of nature?

Chargaff has made, in 1950, the important observation that the numbers of nucleotides in DNA satisfy #A=#T and #G=#C. This played a crucial role in realizing that DNA has a two strand structure with base-pair bindings (of

Halogen bonding assembly of an iodide-binding triple helix

Wind turbines, spiral staircases, and springs—these are a few examples of helices in everyday life. The helix is also a reoccurring concept in mythology, spanning many cultures. In biology, helices are both essential and pervasive. Collagen, the

Environmental light and biological processes in human body

It is well known that the life on Earth originated and has been sustained by the electromagnetic energy from the sun light. In primitive organisms and plants the sun light directly influences biological processes, while in more

A new hypothesis of autoimmune diseases: stress and the nucleolus

Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) have complicated pathologies influenced by genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Mechanisms of AIDs remain mysteries but numerous hypotheses have been proposed. Several hypotheses are discussed to present their unique explanations and to demonstrate that

Cellular barcoding: giving names to every stem cell

There are many different cell types in the blood, all of different functions and shapes. All these cells are made by the stem cells by a process of lineage commitment and differentiation. How can we monitor this

Gene sequencing validation for select commercial turkey genes

Gene expression analysis via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a common tool used to determine, using molecular techniques, the physiological basis underlying  experiments with animal tissues.   Some genes are “turned on” and others silenced in response to

Surprisingly diverse impacts of SMARCB1 loss on gene expression programs in a lethal pediatric cancer

Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are aggressive childhood cancers that are often resistant to chemotherapies and spread to other areas in the body (metastasis), making them one of the most lethal solid cancers known. Primary MRTs are frequently

Zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms

Zinc is an essential trace element with integral roles in numerous biological processes, including enzymatic function, protein structure, and cell signaling pathways. This metal serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor for about 300 different proteins. Abnormal

Your DNA goes places you have never been: What does this mean for forensic scientists interpreting DNA found at a crime scene?

During a criminal investigation, items are commonly examined for DNA to try to identify a potential suspect (Fig. 1).  But is this DNA really from someone involved in the crime or has it got there through innocent

How Vitamin C affects the immune system

DNA contains four bases, A, C, G and T (Fig.1). There are 3 billion of these bases in the human genome, and they code for about 22,000 genes. Because each cell carries the same genetic information –

G-quadruplexes: novel DNA structures controlling life from the beginning

The process by which a single cell, the zygote, becomes a fully formed organism has been a historic scientific enigma. Now we know that the information stored in the genes of the DNA is the responsible for

Effects of Cadmium on amphibians

Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms. It causes abnormal fetus development, cancer, DNA mutations; it impairs growth, and compromises the functions of the reproductive, respiratory and endocrine systems. Cadmium enters the aquatic system through industrial

Crafting and grafting of new cells to treat epidermolysis bullosa

Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a disease that causes the skin to become extremely fragile, which leads to the formation of blisters. Depending on the form the disease takes, ranging from relatively mild to terribly severe, the blistering

How actinomycin binds to DNA and exerts its mechanism of action

In this remarkably simple and profound article — recently appearing in the March issue of the Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics — Henry M. Sobell describes his theory for the existence of “premeltons” in DNA —

How cancer begins and how to prevent it

Cancer is a problem of chemical carcinogenesis. This means that chemicals are involved in the processes leading to cancer.  Knowledge of how certain molecules work is, therefore, essential for understanding how cancer begins.  The chemicals that cause

Genes on or off! How regulatory DNA variations disrupt the balance of P53 and cMYC binding

Identification of causative DNA variants in common complex diseases is very important to screen individuals with high-risk for diseases and for developing therapies to target the genetic cause of diseases, in particular cancer. DNA variations that lie