Tag Archives: evolution

Cornification derived from keratinization through the addition of new epidermal proteins to keratins

Differentiation of epidermal cells in vertebrates takes place by high production of structural proteins termed keratins that belong to cytoskeletal proteins indicated as Intermediate Filaments (α – keratins). The epidermis of vertebrates is a multilayered epithelium that

Molecular mechanism of phenotypic plasticity

Darwinian evolution is considered to be the way that life adapts in every possible environment in Earth. The great evolutionary biologist of the past century Theodosius Dobzansky used to say: “Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in

The arms really can give the legs a helping hand in rehabilitation of human walking

The emergence of upright, bipedal walking is a characteristic of human evolution that separate us from our quadrupedal cousins—other animals. The upright walking posture freed our hands so that we could perform skilled tasks like signaling, carrying,

Repelling water and dirt: superhydrophobic biological surfaces and biomimetic innovations

Life evolved over the last 3.5 billion years: a continuous process of mutation and selection – or trial and error. Today we know of some 1.8 million different species – but assessments indicate the existence of over

A new way to trace evolutionary history by pairwise alignment only

Genomes and genes change during evolution leading to the observed biodiversity in many colors and shades. This genealogical (phylogenetic) relationship is recorded in DNA and can be reconstructed by molecular phylogenetics and expressed in a tree with

Developing strategies for engineering efficient biocatalysts for the industrial production of chiral compounds

The market of chiral pharmaceuticals and of other fine chemicals for the fragrance and plant-protecting industries is a global multi-billion dollar business which is steadily growing. In general, only one of the enantiomers, the (R) or the

TSPO, bond of ages

In the microbic world of about 3.5 billion years ago, unicellular eukaryotes (organisms with cell nuclei) started to form a symbiosis with prokaryotes (organisms without cell nuclei). These prokaryotes were bacteria that could breath oxygen, whereas the

Early land plants evolved a simple but effective mechanism to place stomata away from each other

Stomata are one of the key evolutionary features responsible for the successful colonization of land by plants. A stoma is a pore surrounded by a pair of guard cells, when these cells are turgid and inflated the

How does fever work? As a non-specific stressor

Despite the spectacular discoveries in immunology and recent biotechnological advances, amazingly there has been no consensus on how fever functions to help control infections. Does the heat of fever act as an immune stimulant, or does it

How to build a communication system for cells

Single cell organisms, such as amoebae, are able to live independently without the need for extracellular communication systems. However, multicellular organisms, such as insects, fish and mammals, require systems that permit individual cells to communicate to one

Dining at extraordinary locations: new species of bacteria on fatty diet

Birds are among the most popular organisms on earth. Their majestic appearance, lovely songs as well as the ability to fly have always thrilled people making them one of the most thoroughly investigated classes of the animal

Gene wiring keeps bacteria cooperating

A bacterial cell can cooperate with its neighbours by producing molecules that allow them to grow better. These molecules may for example be enzymes that break down complex nutrients into digestible components. Because making these enzymes is

Impacts of life at 2300 m

Populations all over the world live high up in the mountains. The main mountain ranges with long term settlements include the Himalayas in Asia, the Andes in South America and the Ethiopian highlands in Africa. Researchers could

What situations breed ingroup favouritism?

When we meet strangers, we are often nicer towards those that look like they belong to our own group – a behaviour often termed ingroup favouritism. Examples of what constitutes a group may have to do with

The European Human Behaviour and Evolution Association (EHBEA)

London, UK, from 5-8 April The European Human Behaviour and Evolution Association (EHBEA) is an interdisciplinary society that supports the activities of European researchers with an interest in evolutionary accounts of human cognition, behaviour and society. EHBEA

Natural selection favours large size

In many animal populations, bigger individuals often seem to mate more successfully and have a better chance of survival than smaller individuals. On a far larger scale, fossil evidence from some groups of animals suggest that species