Tag Archives: evolution

Compounds earlier known as neurotransmitters are met and function in every living organism

Historically, the neurotransmitters function were analyzed only in animals with nervous system, and their initial role was associated mainly with the transmission of nerve (electrical) impulses. In the last decade of the 20 century, new views on

How tree frogs keep their Y chromosomes healthy

Sex chromosomes are the pair of chromosomes that fate whether we become male or female. Females carry two X chromosomes, while males carry one X and one Y chromosome. These chromosomes are quite special among the genome:

What happens when (plant) sex fails?

Many plant species reproduce using sexual and asexual methods – and this can vary depending on environmental and genetic conditions. A large amount of energy goes into producing flowers and seeds for sexual reproduction, while vegetative growth

Silencing suppressor proteins shape virus-host co-evolution

Plant viruses are amongst the most important pathogens causing huge economic losses worldwide by reducing crop quality and quantity. A better understanding of the viral infection processes and plant defense strategies is important for crop improvement. During

A central theory of biology

Like all sciences, Biology began with the systematic categorization of plants and animals, beginning with Linnaeus’s Binomial Nomenclature. That process was based on the appearance of organisms, which we know is subjective due to the way that

The origin and evolution of fertility-linked signals in bees

Bees, ants and wasps comprise a biological group named Hymenoptera. In the species of this group, various levels of social organization can be found – from solitary individuals to highly complex social societies. An important characteristic of

Comparison of biological and cultural evolution

Biological evolution is a population-level process guided by selection, and it leads to an increase of the adaptation of the population for the environmental circumstances in which the population lives. Culture can be defined as the wholeness of

Tunicates : Can the study of obscure marine animals shed light on evolution?

Scientists agree that the current biological diversity on earth is the result of evolution: present life forms evolved from their ancestors by progressive modifications. The shape and behavior of an animal or a plant – what scientists

Brown bear habitat selection personality

You maybe think that only humans have personality? But don’t be a fool, animals can have personality too. If you are a pet owner or a farmer, you probably have already noticed. Differences in personality in wild

Escherichia coli K-12 as a model to understand gene regulation

Escherichia coli K-12, a bacterium of the normal flora of humans, represents one of the most important model organisms in biology. This microorganism has been completely sequenced at DNA level, and contains 4319 genes. An important element

Multiminerals in mammals: longevity, organ biology and other things

Whenever we pick up a bottle of multimineral supplement, some chemical elements often appear on the list of ingredients: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, and so on. How are they important to us? Well, our bones

How did new species arise?

How did new ways of life and new adaptations to the surroundings evolve in our early ancestors? And how did new species arise? These questions are at the heart of understanding the evolutionary origin of our species

Archaeological surprise! Lucy has company

One of the most remarkable discoveries in the human fossil record is an Australopithecus afarensis partial skeleton nicknamed Lucy dated to 3.2 million years before present. Discovered in 1974 by Donald Johanson and his colleagues, the skeleton

Using Darwin to discover new advanced materials

The process of evolution, first described in detail by Charles Darwin, has resulted in the amazing diversity of plants and animals in our world, each subgroup shaped by the effects of the different environments in which they

The gestural origins of language

How language evolved is one of the big mysteries of science. Other species communicate, but none can create anything like the variety and complexity of human language. There seems no limit to the number of things we

Genetically engineered mice provide a new look at sight-threatening eye disease

A group of sight-threatening inflammatory diseases of the eye, in which the immune system inappropriately recognizes and attacks the retina and adjacent structures, is known as non-infectious, or autoimmune, uveitis. Lymphocytes of the patients in fact recognize