Tag Archives: membrane

Aflatoxin B1: a foodborne contaminant which impairs sperm quality and fertilization competence

The gradual decline in fertility of human and farm animals over the past few decades coincides with intensive industrial and agricultural development. Multiple environmental factors affect sperm function and fertility, among them are aflatoxins, poisonous byproducts of

A novel estimation method for diffusion in biological membranes

Random walk of lipids and other molecules present in biological membranes is of great relevance in biology and medicine. The distance travelled by walking molecule depends on the geometrical characteristics of the trajectory. At the beginning of

Overproduction of membrane-integral undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase from Vibrio vulnificus

In the cytoplasm, undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (C55-PP) is synthesized by undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UppS) through consecutive condensation reactions of eight molecules of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (Ipp) with farnesyl pyrophosphate (Fpp). The product C55-PP is then dephosphorylated to monophosphate undecaprenyl phosphate

Diving into cell membranes with advanced solid-state NMR methods: harnessing the power of protons

Membrane proteins act as the gateways of the cell. They are essential for the signalling between cells and for the uptake of nutrients; they constitute major drug-targets in human, and their malfunctions are related to severe diseases

Thermo-acoustofluidics: composition-based separation of vesicles

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-enclosed entities actively released from cells into almost all types of bodily fluids such as blood and urine. Exosomes, i.e. small EVs with 40-100 nm in diameter, are particularly important since they serve

Specific epidermal layers engineered by using polymeric membranes

Advances in tissue engineering led to the realization of human bioengineered skin substitutes for in vivo skin regeneration and in vitro applications. Notably, in vitro skin models are useful tools alternative to animal experimentation for testing the

Fluidizing membranes: a simple way to assist in the formation and size-control of giant polymersomes

In the 2005 article “A Giant Step Towards Artificial Life”, David Deamer outlined twelve requirements for creating an artificial cell or “protocell.” The very first of these steps is to form a membrane enclosure, encapsulating all of

Microbial assisted electrochemical desalination: a green option for water/wastewater treatment

Wastewater discharged from industries can lead to adverse ecological effects. Commonly used conventional technologies for wastewater treatment are efficient in removing organic matter and nutrients (N and P) but less effective to reduce salinity. High salt concentrations

Complications of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty: Avoid, recognize and treat!

Penetrating keratoplasty was the first transplantation performed by humans and is in use since over 100 years to treat diseases of the transparent foremost avascular part of the eye – called CORNEA. The cornea has the function

Upregulation of a protein in the brains of patients with neurodegenerative diseases due to its altered membrane binding

The proteins of the Neuronal Calcium Sensor (NCS) family act as calcium dependent molecular switches in order to maintain the communication between the brain cells. Most of NCS proteins are involved in neurodegenerative diseases resulting from calcium

Channels in artificial membranes

Proteins come in a variety of shapes and sizes but two major classes exist: soluble proteins and those reside in membranes. 20-30% of all the proteins found in cells are membrane proteins. Many membrane proteins such as

A new water-filled channel that transports metabolites of peroxisomes

Peroxisomes are the detoxifier of almost all nucleated cells. Their name was given in respect to their capability of eliminating reactive oxygen species like hydrogen peroxide. As round-shaped membrane enclosed vesicles, they can have variable sizes from

Amniotic membranes in ophthalmology

The amniotic membrane (AM) is the inner layer of the fetal membranes and is comprised of 3 distinct layers; epithelium, basement membrane and stroma, the innermost layer that further consists of an inner compact layer, middle fibroblast

Lipids are major players in Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting over 36 million people worldwide. Alzheimer’s patients suffer from dementia and memory loss and go through a progressive, irreversible and eventually fatal loss of cognitive functions. When Alois

Computational refinement and validation protocol for proteins

HIV protects itself using a membrane layer of lipids which covers all proteins which could potentially be targeted by drugs. The only exposed proteins, gp120 and gp41 form spikes that protrude out of the lipid membrane.  These

Janus subcompartmentalized microreactors

When we are sick and have to take medicine, the first thing we do, is reading the package leaflet. We want to know the potential side effects of the drug. Sometimes the side effect of one drug

Oxygen-transfer performance of a new, very low-volume membrane oxygenator

During heart surgery, an external system (extracorporeal circulation) is often needed to replace the normal function of the heart and lungs to ensure blood circulation to the brain and all other organs. One key element of this

Granule formation in pancreatic acinar cells

The pancreas is an important gland organ within the digestive and endocrine system of vertebrates. It is both an endocrine and exocrine gland. The endocrine part produces several important hormones such as insulin which are released in

Tailored-pore materials on polymeric membranes for gas separation

Separation operations in the chemical processes are the most energy and money consuming for the large industries and, therefore, one of the most important challenges for the chemical engineers to overcome now and in the next decades

Pass the salt, please! Understanding how cells deal with high salt

Table salt, a molecule made up of the charged ions sodium and chloride, is an essential nutrient fundamental to life and once worth its weight in gold. Historically a precious commodity, salt also helped civilizations develop because