Tag Archives: mitochondria

Calcium ion by replacing magnesium ion unravels an unexpected role for the mitochondrial F1FO-ATPase

The F1FO-ATPase/synthase is universally known as a complex enzyme machinery which, embedded by the FO portion in the inner mitochondrial membrane and the catalytic F1 sector protruding in the matrix, matches the transmembrane proton flux which occurs

How the mitochondrial F1FO-ATPase can be chemically switched on/off and serve as drug target

The mitochondrial F1FO-ATPase is well known to play the main role in synthesizing most of ATP, thus providing energy to living cells under aerobic conditions. However the enzyme complex can also  work in reverse and split ATP

Melatonin protects the powerhouses of cells, the mitochondria

Mitochondria have been named the ‘powerhouses of cells’, because they are the main source of ATP, a carrier molecule of chemical energy for versatile use in numerous metabolic reactions. ATP is generated by the electron transport chain

Mitochondrial gene discontinuity that translates into fragmented functional proteins

The majority of protein-coding genes in nuclear genomes are interrupted by spliceosomal introns or, less often, by inteins. These intervening sequences are spliced at the RNA or protein level, respectively, so that intact proteins become reconstituted. In

Abl2 kinase phosphorylates bi-organellar regulator MNRR1 in mitochondria, stimulating respiration

The mitochondria are the well-known “powerhouse” of the cell. Not surprisingly, its functional state is important to other parts of the cell and, conversely, information about the needs of other parts of the cell help determine mitochondrial

TSPO, bond of ages

In the microbic world of about 3.5 billion years ago, unicellular eukaryotes (organisms with cell nuclei) started to form a symbiosis with prokaryotes (organisms without cell nuclei). These prokaryotes were bacteria that could breath oxygen, whereas the

Mitochondrial [dys]function; culprit in pre-eclampsia?

Pre-eclampsia, a serious condition of late pregnancy, characterized by high blood pressure and increased protein in the urine in the second-half of pregnancy. This condition affects 5% of first time mothers and is associated with significant maternal

Metabolites from invasive pests: a threat to the functioning of marine ecosystems and an opportunity for the treatment of ovarian cancer

Mitochondria are cellular cytoplasmic organelles, which take part in a variety of cellular metabolic functions. However, these organelles are generally known as the energy-generating powerhouses of the cell, because they play a fundamental role in the production

Gene duplication catalyzes the evolution of new traits in a human pathogen

How do organisms with common ancestry evolve unique traits and eventually diverge from each other? This question has been at the core of evolutionary biology since the theory of common descent was proposed over a century ago.

Glutathione-responsive co-assembly hydrogel for controllable drug release

Glutathione-responsive nano-vehicles have gained considerable interest because several intracellular compartments such as cytosol, mitochondria, and cell nucleus contain a high concentration of glutathione (GSH, 2-10 mM) tripeptides, which is 100-1000 times higher than that in extracellular fluids

Monitoring biosafety of pharmaceutical drugs, insecticides, and other bioactive molecules to mitochondria

Why study the biosafety of pharmaceutical drugs, insecticides, and other bioactive molecules to mitochondria? Mitochondria are large cell organelles in plant and animal cells. They convert chemical energy from food in the cell to usable energy using

Is VPS35 critical to prevent Parkinson’s disease?

Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a severely debilitating motor disorder characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons and increase of α-synuclein in a brain region known as the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc).  Although much progress has been made

Neuroprotection for stroke: Progesterone treatment reduces brain mitochondrial dysfunction

Every year, six million people die from stroke and five million are left disabled. 80% of strokes are ischemic and happen when blood flow is blocked in a part of the brain, due to occlusion of brain

Advancing medicine and agriculture using proteins that control energy and sugar production

Except for bacteria , most living organisms contain specialized cellular compartments termed mitochondria , that are responsible for breaking down sugars to produce energy for the cell. Plant cells possess a second compartment called chloroplasts , which

Metabolism and pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma

Tumors are named according to the organ or the tissue whose cells undergo biological derangement causing the loss of the control mechanisms that normally limit cell growth. Therefore, breast tumors derives from the cells of the ducts of

The combustion of food occurs at cytochrome c oxidase

Cytochrome c oxidase represents the enzyme where cell respiration takes place. The oxygen which we inhale is transported via the blood stream to all cells of the body where it is converted into water by a cold