Tag Archives: mRNA

Early plant development under stress relies on RNA splicing

Plants are unable to move away from harmful environmental conditions that affect their well-being and that ultimately compromise their growth and thereby crop production. To cope with a constantly changing environment, they have evolved unique and elaborate

The proteins and their mRNAs may be located in different areas of the embryos

All proteins are synthesized in a cell in polysomes (polyribosomes) on the template (mRNA). That is why in molecular embryology, by tacit consent, a presence or absence of the specific mRNA in the cell indicates the presence

Serotonin and sleep regulation: cellular and molecular mechanisms

Serotonin ( 5-HT ) is a neurotransmitter, which plays major roles in several physiological functions including circadian rhythmicity, appetite, thermoregulation, nociception, emotion and cognition. The relationship between 5-HT and sleep was demonstrated by several experiments, including in particular an

Lessons learned from the study of non-cancerous meningioma tumors

Meningiomas are the most common among tumors inside the skull (35.6%). The cellular origin of these tumors is the membrane that surrounds the brain, the meninges (Fig. 1) Most meningiomas are grades I & II according to

A “selfish ribosome” as the origin of cellular life

Could there have been a form of “life” that integrated genetic information, protein translation, and the molecular machinery necessary to replicate itself before the first cells? Might such an entity still exist within our cells as a

MicroRNAs fighting muscle wasting during ageing

Have you ever wondered why we age? With time, our joints, bones and muscles become weaker; wrinkles appear and we lose hair and sense of hearing and sight. However, not only our body experiences external changes; inside,

Uncovering the microRNA landscape in the crop pest nematode Meloidogyne incognita

Plant-parasitic nematodes are small roundworms that predominantly feed on roots and cause crop yield losses. The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita is among the most damaging pests of several crops including cotton, tomato, and soybean. The infective stage

Silencing a microRNA may keep the doctor away for diabetic wounds

Patients with diabetes are frequently afflicted with impaired wound healing that may progress into chronic, diabetic ulcers, often leading to complications including limb amputation with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. These ulcers occur not only in

Certain transcripts synthesized by RNA polymerase III in mammals became polyadenylation-competent

It has been known for 40 years that eukaryotic mRNA molecules contain a region of up to 250 adenine residues at the 3’ end. This poly(A) tail mediates mRNA nuclear export, translation, and protection from degradation in

A new technique for quantification of small RNA variants with a single-nucleotide resolution

Non – protein – coding regions of the genome are widely transcribed to produce non – coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which play a crucial role in various biological processes and diseases. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have

Neurodegeneration-associated RNA-binding protein, FUS, regulates mRNA length

RNA processing, including alternative regulations of transcription initiation, splicing, and 3’ end formation of pre – mRNA, is a highly specialized mechanism that enables to generate multiple isoforms from a single gene. This mechanism expands transcriptome and

Going my way? A tale of enzyme recruitment and activation

Protein synthesis is an energetically costly cellular process, in part due to the metabolic requirements of ribosome assembly and gene-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) production.  Consequently, biosynthetic flux through the protein translation pathway is tightly regulated while translational

Blocking miR-212/132 in T cells is a potential therapy for treating colitis

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which include Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, is thought to be caused by aberrant immune response to host intestinal microbiota, leading inflammation in gastrointestinal tract. The symptoms such as diarrhea, rectal bleeding, anemia,

Virus containing mealybug DNA kills mealybug

One way of self-regulating protein synthesis by animals is suppression of the relevant messenger RNA (mRNA); molecules that translate into amino acids and act as building blocks for protein. The mechanism, called RNA interference (RNAi), works by

Helicase and ribosome share a common mechanism of nucleic acid unwinding

In the cell DNA is present in the duplex form and many messenger RNAs (mRNAs) can form duplex structures. To access the genetic information (represented by nucleotides or codons) on the single-stranded (ss) nucleic acids (NA) by

Potential for therapeutic intervention in lung diseases

The major function of the lung is to enable ambient oxygen uptake (essential for life) and eliminate carbon dioxide (a waste byproduct of metabolism) from the body. Surfactant protein A (SP-A), is a protein found in the