Tag Archives: neuron

Five distinct neuronal types inhabit the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus

The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) is considered as the main brain region inducing slow-wave sleep (SWS). Despite its physiological importance, the neuronal composition of the VLPO still remained incompletely described. Yet, the characterization of neuronal properties within

Serotonin and sleep regulation: cellular and molecular mechanisms

Serotonin ( 5-HT ) is a neurotransmitter, which plays major roles in several physiological functions including circadian rhythmicity, appetite, thermoregulation, nociception, emotion and cognition. The relationship between 5-HT and sleep was demonstrated by several experiments, including in particular an

Microtubules slide neurons home

Brain development requires neurons, the most sophisticated information-carrying cells in the body, to migrate from where they are born to faraway destinations where they finally settle down and take up residence.  During its journey, a young neuron

Tapping neurotransmitters from neurons to investigate their involvement in brain function

To tap neurotransmitters and neuromodulators from brain neurons of anaesthetised rodents, a guide cannula is stereoractically inserted. Into a distinct brain structure. Few days after surgery the stylet of the guide cannula is replaced by a double-walled

Human motor neurones: so well-known or still unknown?

Movements, the fundamental base of normal human life, are produced when our skeletal muscles contract and relax, submitting to control by special nervous cells, the so-called motor neurones (motoneurones) placed in the spinal cord. It is surprising

Photometric patch electrode captures optical and electrical signals simultaneously in deep brain tissues

When neurons work they signal each other using action potentials, which is a rapid change of membrane potential and underlies the brain function. In most neurons action potentials accompany changes of intracellular concentration of calcium ions. Calcium

A force behind signal propagation in the brain

Cognitive functions require signal propagation in the brain, i.e., signals propagating via spike trains (at a timescale of milliseconds) in a brain structural network where the nodes and links are individual neurons and synapses, respectively. During a

The birth of neurons, steered by the antenna of the cell

Millions of neurons that constitute the human nervous system are generated during fetal development from stem cells that reside at the ventricle, a liquid-filled space found deep within the brain. How the fate of a stem cell

Theta burst like stimulations lead to formation of BDNF dependent memory traces

Creating and storing memory traces in our brains is essential for learning, logical thinking, creativity, and for being able to recall persons, events, and facts throughout life. Memory traces are created by joint electrical activity in nerve

ZNRF1: a key molecule activated by reactive oxygen species to cause neuronal degeneration

Neurons, the major component of our brain, have long processes (called “axons” and “dendrites”) to communicate with other neurons and cells. In many brain diseases that old people get suffered from, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease,

Genetically encoded voltage indicators for large scale cortical imaging come of age

Composed of billions of neurons, the brain is the most complex organ that dictates our daily lives. Naturally, understanding the brain is one of the final frontiers that would not only provide basic understanding but also sprout

A small RNA, microRNA-155, “micromanages” inflammation and renewal of neurons in the brain

The immune system is like a silent army, protecting the body from enemy viruses and bacteria. Inflammation is part of this response, acting to eliminate pathogens and initiate tissue repair. Most of the time, our immune systems

Another beneficial role for insulin in the brain: keeping the brain immune responses in check

Brain disease is an umbrella term, which is used to describe a broad variety of diseases ranging from epilepsy to Alzheimer’s disease to multiple sclerosis and everything in between. Brain diseases differ from each other at the

How do neurons develop and regenerate?

Identifying how neurons form a functioning network provides the background for knowing how to manage, treat, and prevent neurological disorders, as well as promote healing after injury to the nervous system. NICHD researchers uncovered a new pathway

What is injured: motor neuron or motor nerve?

All movements, whether simple or very complex (ballet dancing, playing the piano, speaking) are the results of the complex interaction between nerve cells (neurons) from different departments of the brain. But the final arbiters of movement patterns

Immediate antidepressant effects on functional brain connectivity

Neurotransmitters are the brain’s chemical messengers that allow for communication between neurons. They ‘jump’ from one neuron to the next causing excitation or inhibition of cell firing. Since healthy brain functioning relies on adequate neural communication, neurotransmitter