Tag Archives: RNA

Revisiting the RNA World with its inventor

The RNA World Hypothesis is a model for the early evolution of life on earth proposed in 1986 by the molecular biologist Walter Gilbert, in which he posited that the earliest forms of life were likely composed

Early plant development under stress relies on RNA splicing

Plants are unable to move away from harmful environmental conditions that affect their well-being and that ultimately compromise their growth and thereby crop production. To cope with a constantly changing environment, they have evolved unique and elaborate

What is the connection between cell division and neurodegenerative disease?

Cell division is an important process in development, tissue repair and reproduction in a wide variety of animals. The purpose of cell division is to separate the genetic material, or DNA, into two newly forming daughter cells.

Unraveling multiple checkpoints for accurate selection of initiator tRNA on ribosomes for translation initiation

Ribosomes comprise a large (50S) and a small (30S) subunits. To begin (initiate) protein synthesis, the two subunits associate on an mRNA (70S). Organisms possess two classes of tRNAs, the initiators (i-tRNA) and the elongators. The i-tRNA

A novel deep learning-based method for predicting RNA-protein interactions

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) take over 5–10% of the eukaryotic proteome and regulate the gene localization and  translation. On the other hand, the mutations in RBPs have been discovered to be associated with disease risk, such as FUS

A new technology for employing artificial trans-acting small interfering RNA

A central doctrine for a gene expression is typically from the DNA coding sequence to the RNA transcript and then to the protein. So, the normal function of a gene can be disrupted by suppression, or so-called

Lipid modified natural RNA

tRNA is an integral part of the protein translation process. It translates the genetic code from mRNA to make the corresponding protein. The process of protein translation requires a well-defined structure of specific tRNA and its ability

A new hypothesis of autoimmune diseases: stress and the nucleolus

Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) have complicated pathologies influenced by genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Mechanisms of AIDs remain mysteries but numerous hypotheses have been proposed. Several hypotheses are discussed to present their unique explanations and to demonstrate that

Viable RNase H1 knockout mice: The end of an enigma

Human cells have two RNase H enzymes, HI and H2. RNase H enzymes degrade RNA but only when an RNA strand is hybridized to a DNA strand forming an RNA-DNA heteroduplex. These enzymes are present in almost

From parasitic microfungi towards the origins of Microsporidia

Microsporidia are unicellular eukaryotic parasites, infecting virtually all animals including humans. They are characterized by peculiar morphological and genetic features, which are the result of their extreme adaptation to the intracellular lifestyle. Interestingly, the infection apparatus in

Novel approaches to cancer treatment encoded within non-coding RNA

A hallmark of all living organisms is the presence of genetic material within each cell; this material is invariantly composed of a specific class of biological molecules known as the nucleic acids. While the more familiar variety

Unravel the key genes potentially related to high strength of cotton fiber by comparative phenotypic and genomic analyses

The demand of high strength of cotton fibers has been increased dramatically with the advent of modern high speed spinning technology for producing yarn. Cotton fiber is a gigantic single cell which consists of almost pure cellulose.

Repetitive growth and fission of artificial cells with gene replication

Reconstruction of an artificial cell is one of the biggest challenges in elucidating the border between living and non-living things. Liposomes are compartments that have lipid bilayer membranes, like cells, and therefore are used as an artificial

Identify the bacteria within and on your-self

The human intestine (gut) and other body sites harbor numerous microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, archaea, including fungi), collectively referred to as the microbiome or microbiota. The genome of these microbes encodes for metabolic functions and contribute significantly to the

From famine to feast: cells can adapt to nutritional changes

Sometimes we have mostly vegetables, at other times, meat; sometimes we eat much, at other times, little. Our diet can be quite changeable. This is all the more true for animals, which need to content themselves with

Two kinds of novel osmoregulation pathways in Escherichia coli

To cope with severe environmental changes, cell is equipped with various stress response pathways. Osmotic upshift (hyperosmotic shock) triggers water efflux from bacterial cell, and the resulting cell shrinkage is sensed by osmosensors embedded in the cytoplasmic