Tag Archives: RNA

Lipid modified natural RNA

tRNA is an integral part of the protein translation process. It translates the genetic code from mRNA to make the corresponding protein. The process of protein translation requires a well-defined structure of specific tRNA and its ability

A new hypothesis of autoimmune diseases: stress and the nucleolus

Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) have complicated pathologies influenced by genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Mechanisms of AIDs remain mysteries but numerous hypotheses have been proposed. Several hypotheses are discussed to present their unique explanations and to demonstrate that

Viable RNase H1 knockout mice: The end of an enigma

Human cells have two RNase H enzymes, HI and H2. RNase H enzymes degrade RNA but only when an RNA strand is hybridized to a DNA strand forming an RNA-DNA heteroduplex. These enzymes are present in almost

From parasitic microfungi towards the origins of Microsporidia

Microsporidia are unicellular eukaryotic parasites, infecting virtually all animals including humans. They are characterized by peculiar morphological and genetic features, which are the result of their extreme adaptation to the intracellular lifestyle. Interestingly, the infection apparatus in

Novel approaches to cancer treatment encoded within non-coding RNA

A hallmark of all living organisms is the presence of genetic material within each cell; this material is invariantly composed of a specific class of biological molecules known as the nucleic acids. While the more familiar variety

Unravel the key genes potentially related to high strength of cotton fiber by comparative phenotypic and genomic analyses

The demand of high strength of cotton fibers has been increased dramatically with the advent of modern high speed spinning technology for producing yarn. Cotton fiber is a gigantic single cell which consists of almost pure cellulose.

Repetitive growth and fission of artificial cells with gene replication

Reconstruction of an artificial cell is one of the biggest challenges in elucidating the border between living and non-living things. Liposomes are compartments that have lipid bilayer membranes, like cells, and therefore are used as an artificial

Identify the bacteria within and on your-self

The human intestine (gut) and other body sites harbor numerous microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, archaea, including fungi), collectively referred to as the microbiome or microbiota. The genome of these microbes encodes for metabolic functions and contribute significantly to the

From famine to feast: cells can adapt to nutritional changes

Sometimes we have mostly vegetables, at other times, meat; sometimes we eat much, at other times, little. Our diet can be quite changeable. This is all the more true for animals, which need to content themselves with

Two kinds of novel osmoregulation pathways in Escherichia coli

To cope with severe environmental changes, cell is equipped with various stress response pathways. Osmotic upshift (hyperosmotic shock) triggers water efflux from bacterial cell, and the resulting cell shrinkage is sensed by osmosensors embedded in the cytoplasmic

Hand disinfectant with activity against all viruses

Across the hospitals worldwide the same procedure can be seen to take place: the doctor or the nurse applies disinfectant (sanitizer) on their hand before examining the patient. In doing so, she or he inactivates bacteria, yeasts

Specific synthetic nucleic acids instead antibodies

 For a long time immunological methods have been applied in biological research as well as for detection and evaluation of various substances in clinical analysis of body fluids. Serum proteins, antibodies, form integral parts in all variants

Alternative splicing: the new frontier in diabetes research

The human genome is predicted to contain 22.000 coding genes, but more than 200.000 proteins are expressed in human cells. This discrepancy is explained at least in part by the presence of alternative splicing (AS), a key

Certain transcripts synthesized by RNA polymerase III in mammals became polyadenylation-competent

It has been known for 40 years that eukaryotic mRNA molecules contain a region of up to 250 adenine residues at the 3’ end. This poly(A) tail mediates mRNA nuclear export, translation, and protection from degradation in

Ribose hydroxyl group summary

We usually think of enzymes – the molecules that drive all the reactions in our cells – as being proteins, but many scientists believe that the earliest enzymes may have been made of RNA. RNA, which is

A new technique for quantification of small RNA variants with a single-nucleotide resolution

Non – protein – coding regions of the genome are widely transcribed to produce non – coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which play a crucial role in various biological processes and diseases. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have