Tag Archives: RNA

Certain transcripts synthesized by RNA polymerase III in mammals became polyadenylation-competent

It has been known for 40 years that eukaryotic mRNA molecules contain a region of up to 250 adenine residues at the 3’ end. This poly(A) tail mediates mRNA nuclear export, translation, and protection from degradation in

Ribose hydroxyl group summary

We usually think of enzymes – the molecules that drive all the reactions in our cells – as being proteins, but many scientists believe that the earliest enzymes may have been made of RNA. RNA, which is

A new technique for quantification of small RNA variants with a single-nucleotide resolution

Non – protein – coding regions of the genome are widely transcribed to produce non – coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which play a crucial role in various biological processes and diseases. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have

In silico prediction of ebolavirus RNA polymerase inhibition

A virus at work: Let us assume that you are a virus that just infected a cell (the HOST CELL) of an individual (the PATIENT). What is your vicious objective? You want to make copies of yourself

Neurodegeneration-associated RNA-binding protein, FUS, regulates mRNA length

RNA processing, including alternative regulations of transcription initiation, splicing, and 3’ end formation of pre – mRNA, is a highly specialized mechanism that enables to generate multiple isoforms from a single gene. This mechanism expands transcriptome and

Pitfalls in Acanthamoeba genotyping

Acanthamoeba is a protozoan (a eukaryotic microorganism), widespread in several natural environments such as soil and water as a free-living microbial predator. However, it may occasionally infect humans and other animals causing diseases, like keratitis, a sight-threatening

The molecular analysis of tumor cells in pancreatic tissue – searching for a needle in a haystack

In cancer research usually the tumor cell specific abnormalities are of interest: gene mutations, production of abnormal proteins, production of abnormal quantity of proteins, tumor cells treatment response. But the molecular analysis of pancreatic tumor samples poses

Going my way? A tale of enzyme recruitment and activation

Protein synthesis is an energetically costly cellular process, in part due to the metabolic requirements of ribosome assembly and gene-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) production.  Consequently, biosynthetic flux through the protein translation pathway is tightly regulated while translational

A factor that regulates the expression of HIV genes

Proteins are the machinery of life. Nearly everything in a cell is manufactured by, regulated by or composed of proteins, which are encoded in genes. When a cell needs a particular protein, the DNA encoding the protein

Silencing suppressor proteins shape virus-host co-evolution

Plant viruses are amongst the most important pathogens causing huge economic losses worldwide by reducing crop quality and quantity. A better understanding of the viral infection processes and plant defense strategies is important for crop improvement. During

Slug transcription factor activates its own expression during epithelial to mesenchymal transition

Cancer is a highly aggressive and challenging disease. In several instances, symptoms are not evident until the disease progresses to an advanced stage and hence, it is amongst the leading causes of human mortality. Despite considerable attempts

Virus containing mealybug DNA kills mealybug

One way of self-regulating protein synthesis by animals is suppression of the relevant messenger RNA (mRNA); molecules that translate into amino acids and act as building blocks for protein. The mechanism, called RNA interference (RNAi), works by

Adapting sperm RNA as a fertility diagnostic for the male

Infertility is a global public health issue affecting about 13 percent of couples of reproductive age. After one year of unprotected intercourse, couples having difficulties to conceive often seek reproductive care. Known causes of infertility are typically

Helicase and ribosome share a common mechanism of nucleic acid unwinding

In the cell DNA is present in the duplex form and many messenger RNAs (mRNAs) can form duplex structures. To access the genetic information (represented by nucleotides or codons) on the single-stranded (ss) nucleic acids (NA) by

How selenium is incorporated into proteins: structural view of selenocysteine ‘recoding’

Selenium is an essential micronutrient for human health. It is present in proteins as a special amino acid, selenocysteine, which is the so-called 21st amino acid. Selenocysteine resembles serine and cysteine, where the selenium atom (Se) replaces

Whole-cell computational models can predict how genes influence behavior

Since the early 1900’s, scientists have known that cells are composed of multiple components, including small molecules, DNA, RNA, and protein. Over the past fifty years, scientists have systematically measured these individual components and their interactions. Despite