Tag Archives: vaccine

Understanding vaccine development – Lessons to make effective vaccines against Alzheimer’s disease

A natural protective immunity against a disease usually anticipates the successful development of preventive vaccines; as shown by the infectious diseases and lately cancer vaccines. Currently available information shows that the immune system is since an early

Neuraminidase gene: a target for influenza antivirals and vaccines

Highly contagious nature and fast transmissibility, mark Influenza as one of the most infectious diseases. According to WHO, annual Influenza epidemic tolls up to 3-5 million cases of serious illness, culminating in half a million death worldwide.

Attenuated bacteria as a DNA-delivery system for Chagas disease vaccine

Chagas disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) one of the most neglected tropical diseases worldwide. Prevalent in developing countries, it has a major social and economic impact in

The old-generation smallpox vaccines – Are we ready for the tomorrow outbreak?

Smallpox disease has menaced the world throughout history with large scale epidemics and a case fatality rate of about 30%.  Following the introduction of smallpox vaccine by Eduard Jenner in 1796, and later with the global effort

Vaccine research on Africa’s cattle-killing East Coast fever: A short (somewhat potted but handsomely illustrated) history

Tremendous research progress has been made over the last ten years to better control the deadly African disease of cattle known as East Coast fever. This disease is caused by a single-celled organism, Theileria parva, which is carried

Caste-ethnic disparity in vaccine use among children in Nepal

The United Nations’ Millennium Development Goal 4 addresses child mortality as a major indicator of health and development, revealing much about a nation’s health services and related social and economic factors. Currently, an estimated 8.1 million children

Cerium dioxide nanoparticles increase immunogenicity of the influenza vaccine

Influenza and acute respiratory infections are the viral diseases having tendency for fast epidemic spread. The 2009 “swine flu” pandemic caused by the H1N1 flu virus has revealed the need not only for a detailed study of

Will dengue vaccination be cost-effective for an epidemic country? The case of Argentina

Dengue is one of the major tropical diseases, causing a huge burden in terms of suffering, deaths and economic costs globally. Many research institutions and pharmaceutical companies throughout the world have been trying to develop a vaccine

Tracing aluminium adjuvants in viable cells

To improve the effect of a vaccine, adjuvants are often included in the vaccine formulation. An adjuvant is a molecule that potentiates the immune response induced by the vaccine, and commonly used adjuvants in vaccine formulations are

Human papillomavirus infection and vaccination

Human papillamoavirus (HPV) is an infection that can be sexually transmitted. A person can get HPV by having vaginal, anal, or oral sex with another person who has the virus. HPV infections are the most common sexually

Novel recombinant JEV vaccine

Japanese Encephalitis (JE) is a viral disease, which infects humans and animals. The disease is caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus named Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV). The disease is endemic in Asian countries but with rapid globalization and

Small fish can help finding antimalarial drugs with less severe side effects

In 2012, over 200 million cases of malaria have been reported. Vaccines for malaria are under development; however, no generally accepted vaccine that also works for adults is yet available. Therefore, drugs will in the foreseeable future

A brucellosis vaccine that provides sterile immunity

Brucellosis is a disease caused by infection with bacteria of the genus Brucella. Most of Brucella species are capable of infecting humans, and they are all considered zoonotic since different animals are their preferential hosts. Brucella ovis

Impact of Influenza A virus PA-X protein on host immune responses

Influenza A virus is a clinically important respiratory pathogen that annually infects millions of people worldwide and is, therefore, a serious threat to public health. Recurrent influenza infections occur throughout life because a relatively weak immune response

The H5N2 avian epidemic: prognosis of the next influenza outbreak

Influenza is a viral infectious disease that afflicts millions of people every year with fatalities of thousands; sometimes significantly more when it emerges in a pandemic form. The Spanish Flu of 1918 was probably the most severe

Treating prostate cancer with immunotherapy

Cancer immunotherapy induces the immune system to recognize and destroy cancer cells. These therapies can work through a number of ways but two of the most researched methods are therapeutic cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Therapeutic

Could cancer be cured by inducing an autoimmune disease against It?

Might there be some way to make a microbial protein that the immune system normally overlooks (a “non-antigen”) into a target for an active immune response (an “antigen”)? Could one co-opt the immune system to produce an

A novel hepatitis C DNA vaccine

Since their development, vaccines have reduced the global burden of disease. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes persistent infection and is a leading cause of liver disease. To date, no vaccine is currently available, and treatment is costly

Why does BCG fail to protect against tuberculosis?

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is the microbe that causes tuberculosis (TB), a disease that kills one human every 18 seconds. In the last 80 years, only one vaccine has proven somewhat effective at preventing the development of TB

Vaccinating pregnant women – a global perspective

The World Health Organization (WHO) influenza vaccine policy recommendations aim to protect vulnerable high-risk groups from severe disease. In a 2012 update of its influenza vaccine position, WHO recommended that countries considering the initiation or expansion of