Blood vessels regulate fetal brain growth

Millions of neurons are generated during fetal development from progenitor cells that reside inside the embryonic brain More »

Species are always important

This review is based on the premise that all species are important to life on earth even if the exact role or value of a species has not been formally documented More »

Virus chainmail: protective and porous metal-organic framework grown on a virus

Biomineralization describes a process of programmable accumulation, concentration, and construction of inorganic ions regulated by organisms to form both amorphous More »

Risky attraction to the familiar smell of disease

Many animals remember smells, sights, and sounds (‘cues’) they encounter as juveniles, like the smell of nearby individuals, or their environment. More »


Erasable opto-thermoelectric printing

Chemically synthesized micro- and nanoparticles, termed as colloidal particles, are promising as building blocks of novel functional devices. To build desired functional devices, one needs to print colloidal particles from aqueous solutions onto solid-state substrates. Light has

Mechanical injury in plants triggers local and long distance response using biochemical signals

It is well-known that when the mammal skin undergoes a physical injury there is a local response to repair the damage cells but, at the same time, there is also a diversity of signals that stimulate the

Amitriptyline increases salivary flow in treatment-resistant burning mouth syndrome: What is the underlying mechanism?

Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by intolerable pain in the mouth with no underlying dental or medical causes, and sometimes accompanied with complaints of xerostomia. BMS patients showed lower salivary flow and higher salivary spinnability. Salivary

Melatonin protects the powerhouses of cells, the mitochondria

Mitochondria have been named the ‘powerhouses of cells’, because they are the main source of ATP, a carrier molecule of chemical energy for versatile use in numerous metabolic reactions. ATP is generated by the electron transport chain

Preferential binding of Inorganic Mercury to specific lipids and its competition with Cadmium

Mercury is a heavy metal with well-established toxicity that exists in several forms in the environment including elemental, organic and inorganic mercury (Hg), which is the metal form of interest in this study. In addition to toxic

Aryepiglottic fold augmentation for late onset dysphagia after recurrent laryngeal neuropathy in horse

Coughing and dysphagia are known post surgical complications following prosthetic laryngoplasty for laryngeal hemiplegia, subsiding with time in most cases. The author observed a delayed onset of dysphagia following this surgery in a small number of patients.

Lung infections and the origins of rheumatoid arthritis

Five percent of individuals worldwide develop an autoimmune disease. The causes of the majority of autoimmune diseases is unknown. But it is recognised that various tissues are damaged by over-activation of our immune system in response to

Can greater perceptions of inequality negatively impact physical health?

Stress has been linked to a wide range of deleterious outcomes extending from obesity to cardiovascular problems to increases in depression and anxiety, and even an increased risk of mortality. Even more troubling is that stress is

Amikacin analysis and aerosol particle size distribution (aPSD) determination using charged aerosol detector (CAD)

Amikacin, a broad spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic derived from kanamycin A, is commonly used for treating severe, hospital – acquired infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. The analysis of this molecule has always been challenging because it does not

Could the humble banana help mitigate diseases?

Musa acuminata, is the scientific name of the wild species of banana that has reinvigorated interest in finding cures for diseases such as cancer, HIV and many more. The wild banana habituates the tropical and subtropical regions

Is apolipoprotein C3 always bad for your health?

Apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) is a small protein of blood, produced by liver and intestine. Our knowledge of APOC3 functions in relation to human health and disease remains limited, albeit human Apoc3 gene nucleotide sequence was identified more

Complete genome sequencing of Streptomyces sp. MOE7 that produces biologically active extracellular polysaccharide

Members of the genus Streptomyces are filamentous bacteria, considered the largest genus of Actinobacteria. Bacteria of this genus are considered among the most important soil bacteria as they are well known sources of many important biologically active

Breathing problems in Parkinson’s disease: a common problem, rarely diagnosed

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer’s disease. It is characterized by bradykinesia (slowness in movement) tremor, rigidity, and postural instability. Potential non-motor manifestations of PD include depression, anxiety, constipation, overactive bladder

Understanding cardiac arrhythmias using an embryonic stem cell model

Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and have the capability to differentiate into almost all cell types of the body. Thus, they offer great potential for regenerative medicine such as cell-based therapies and basic research purposes including disease

Using rewards to induce better eating behaviors in children: evidence from a field experiment

According to the Centers for Disease Control, a substantial portion of children—8.9% of two to five-year olds and 21.9% of six to 11 year-olds—can be categorized as obese. Given the adverse effects of pediatric obesity on dietary

Cs adsorption sites in clay influenced by solution concentration

Since the nuclear crisis at Fukushima, the Cs decontamination works have yielded a large amount of contaminated soil. The urgency of reducing the volume of contaminated soil has become a serious concern with respect to the acceleration