Novel biosensors for the rapid detection of toxicants in foods

The specific objective of this monograph is mainly to exploit progress in nanosciences to deploy nanotechnology in affordable, mass-produced sensors, and to integrate these into components and systems (including portable ones) for mass market applications in environmental and food monitoring. This monogram investigates the progress in the development of biosensors for the rapid detection of food toxicants for online applications. Sensing includes chemical and microbiological food toxicants, such as toxins, insecticides, pesticides, herbicides, microorganisms, bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms, phenolic compounds, allergens, genetically modified foods, hormones, dioxins, insecticides, pesticides, and herbicides, etc.

Biosensors are classified either to the physical transducer used or according to the biomolecule used to recognize the analyte of interest. The classification of biosensors according to the recognition element is the most common and important route for classification. This classification includes 5 categories of devices

Enzymatic Biosensors

Different enzymatic reactions commonly exploited for fabrication of biosensors are listed in Table 1:

Substrate Enzyme Species Detected Detection
Choline Choline oxidase H2O2 Amperometry
Ethanol Alcohol oxidase H2O2 Amperometry
Formaldehyde Formaldehyde dehydrogenase NADH Amperometry
Glucose Glucose oxidase H2O2, O2 Amperometry
Glutamine Glutamine oxidase H2O2 Amperometry
Glycerol Glycerol dehydrogenase NADH, O2 Amperometry
Hypoxanthine Xanthine oxidase H2O2 Amperometry
Lactate Lactate oxidase H2O2 Amperometry
Oligosaccharides Glucoamylase, glucose oxidase H2O2 Amperometry
Phenol Polyphenol oxidase Quinone Amperometry
Hormones Alkaline phosphatase (as label) p-Nitrophenol Amperometry
Aspartame l-Aspartase NH3 Potentiometry
Fats Lipase Fatty acids Potentiometry
Glucose Glucose oxidase Gluconic acid Potentiometry
Urea Urease NH4+, CO2 Potentiometry
Nitrite Nitrite reductase NH4+ Potentiometry
Penicillin Penicillinase H+ Potentiometry
Sulfate Sulfate oxidase HS Potentiometry
Glucose Glucose oxidase Gluconic acid ISFET
Penicillin Penicillinase Penicillic acid ISFET
Triolein Lipase Fatty acids ISFET
Ethanol Alcohol dehydrogenase NADH Absorbance
Glucose Glucose oxidase O2 Absorbance
Urea Urease Ammonia Absorbance
Lactate Lactate monooxygenase NADH Absorbance
Penicillin Penicillinase Penicillinic acid Absorbance
Glutamate Glutamate dehydrogenase NADH Absorbance
Pesticides AchE Acetic acid Absorbance
Chlorophenols Alkaline phosphatase p-Nitrophenol Absorbance
Ethanol Alcohol dehydrogenase NADH Electrochemiluminescence

Table 1. Different enzymes commonly used in biosensors, their substrates, the species detected, and the detection mode used

Antibody-Based Biosensors

The majority of immunosensors use antibodies or antigen immobilized on the sensitive surface of the sensor. In the case of immobilized antigen, the recommendations for immobilization are not common and depend on its nature. The simplest way to immobilize the antibody is by physical adsorption. Another alternative is covalent coupling of antibodies to chemically activated surface of the sensor.

Ion Channel Switch- and Lipid Film-Based Biosensors

Studies are currently focused on the development and evaluation of methods for the incorporation of ion channels, enzymes, antibodies, or receptors in electrochemical, optical, or mass-sensitive detectors with lipid film as a recognition element or as an ion channel switch-based devices. An example of development of lipid films based sensors are glass fiber filter supported BLMs with incorporated artificial receptor that has been developed by our group for the rapid detection of carbofuran in fruits and vegetables.

Oligonucleotide and Nucleic Acid-Based Biosensors

Oligonucleotide and nucleic acid-based biosensors were used to measure toxic aromatic amines, oxidative damage, bioactivated benzo(a)pyrene, hydrazine, triazine-based herbicides, and fluorine derivatives, Recently, DNA damage biosensor has been applied to the detection of the antioxidant effect of apple and orange juices.

Tissue, Microorganisms, Organelles, and Cell-Based Biosensors

Living bacteria can be immobilized by physicochemical methods onto the measuring surface of the sensors. A few examples of these biosensors are:
1. A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor for the rapid identification of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler samples.
2. A novel SPR biosensor using lectin as bioreceptor.
3. A whole cell array biosensor for the efficient detection of neurotoxic organophosphate compounds.

Georgia-Paraskevi Nikoleli 1, Dimitrios Nikolelis 2, Marianna-Thalia Nikolelis 2,
Spyridoula Bratakou 1, Stephanos Karapetis 2

1Laboratory of Enviromental & Sanitary Engineering, Department of Public Health,
Faculty of Health and Caring Proffessions, University of West Attica
2Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Athens, Athens, Greece

Publication

Novel Biosensors for the Rapid Detection of Toxicants in Foods.
Nikoleli GP, Nikolelis DP, Siontorou CG, Karapetis S, Varzakas T
Adv Food Nutr Res. 2018

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