Tag Archives: brain

Retroduplication of rhodopsin gene 400 million years ago diversified the photoreception in fishes

AoS. Retroduplication of rhodopsin gene 400 million years ago diversified the photoreception in fishes.

Animals utilize light from the environment as important information sources. We can discriminate colors, brightness and shapes of objects by visual system. In addition, animals can detect daily and seasonal changes of the light environment to alter

Wrestling with the alligator’s brain

Wrestling with the alligator’s brain. AoS

When some individuals stand up quickly from a sitting or crouched posture, the blood flow to their brain is temporarily reduced. In response to the reduced blood flow, their brain will enter a short period of neural

Physiological brainwashing

Physiological brainwashing. AoS

There is a barrier in the brain, known as the blood-brain barrier, which strictly regulates the exchange of substances between the blood and this organ. The blood-brain barrier restricts the passage of drugs into the brain and

HIV-1 alters mitochondria in neurons and contributes to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

HIV-1 alters mitochondria in neurons and contributes. AoS

Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) enters the brain during the initial stages of infection and can cause neurologic dysfunction. Despite the success of HIV treatment through combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), impaired neurocognitive function remains an important problem

Cannabinoid receptors and incidental associations: a way to creativity?

Animals and humans adapt to changes in the environment through previous experiences. In our daily life, while we are engaged in a particular activity or social event, we are continuously surrounded by random associations between low salience

Bell ringers: Concussion problems in youth football players

Concussion problems in youth football players. AoS

Concussion has become an important topic in sports news and research. While researchers are studying the mental, physical, and emotional effects of concussion within professional, college, and high school athletes; the negative effects of concussion on youth

Early detected Minamata disease victims were the tip of a large iceberg

Early detected Minamata disease. AoS

The Chisso Company began discharging contaminated wastewater into the sea at Minamata in 1932. Twenty-four years later, in 1956, some inhabitants were found with acute, severe, profound neurological disorders, including not only sensory disturbances but also walking,

Consciousness hidden in the brain fissure

Consciousness, informally stated as the subjective feeling of being, comprises of two basic components—arousal (wakefulness) and awareness (awareness of environment and self). Although the posteromedial cortex (PMC), an area hidden in the posterior interhemispheric fissure, has been

Should we (still) believe in the propagating nerve impulse as a purely electrical process?

The propagating nerve impulse is a complex phenomenon. AoS

Processing and integrating information in networks of discrete nerve cells is fundamental to all neural processes, from sensation to movement to cognition. Nerve cells are functionally polarized, making it imperative for the information to be communicated from

Heat, diet and lifestyles control longevity in animals and man

Heat, Diet and Lifestyles control Longevity in Animals and Man

The inactivation of the heat shock gene called Sirtuin 1 (Sirt 1) is associated with many chronic diseases such as diabetes, non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative diseases. Factors such as body temperature

The voltage-gated potassium channel, Kv1.3, at the crossroads of glial functions in glioma

The voltage-gated potassium channel, Kv1.3, at the crossroads of glial functions in glioma

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most lethal cancers in adult humans, with a frequency of 6:100.000 people. Despite the current three-modality therapy, which includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, the clinical outcome of GBM patients remains

Detecting math ability with brain potentials

Detecting math ability with brain potentials

It is known that the various individuals differ in their ability to perform arithmetic calculations. Some people can find mathematics an extremely easy exercise while for others it can become an insurmountable problem. For example, a significant

Brain networks in major depressive disorder

Pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) is poorly understood, because it affects a broad range of motivational, emotional, and cognitive processes, which are difficult to disentangle. Thus, task performance differences between patients and healthy controls may relate

Constructing a Google-Earth-like functional brain atlas

Brain, the final frontier. These are the voyages of the brain cartographers. Their continuing mission: To explore strange new maps, to seek out new areas and new functions, to BOLD-ly go where no one has gone before.

Can EBI2 receptor protect brain cells (oligodendrocytes) from dying during disease?

EBI2 receptor in different brain cells and its role in brain disease

The four major brain-specific cell types in the brain are: (i) neurons, which transmit and process information via electrical signals, (ii) oligodendrocytes, which insulate neuronal axons with fatty sheets called myelin to ensure fast and complete electrical

A tipping point in the size of human groups for successful cooperation in social-ecological systems

How large should be a human group to succeed in collaborating effectively? From a theoretical standpoint, social sciences teach that the larger is the group the harder is to cooperate. So far there was no convincing evidence

Statins: Good for the heart, but do they impact the brain?

High cholesterol, termed hyperlipidemia, is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, keeping cholesterol levels low through diet and exercise has proven benefits for reducing heart disease risk. For adults who cannot meet their cholesterol targets through

The choroid plexus: a new player in the (microbiome-)gut-brain axis

The healthy human gut microbiome contains 100 trillion bacteria, outnumbering the amount of human cells by a factor of 10. These bacteria are important in several crucial processes in our body. Hence, changes in the composition, caused

A powerful tool for the study of CD4 T cells in malaria

Although aimed at controlling invading pathogens, immune responses can sometimes be harmful to the host. Responses against the blood stage of malaria are an example of this: while B cells are activated and produce useful antibodies that

Why iron and copper may be harmful to the aging brain

Similar to other organs, brain function declines with age. Furthermore, age is the single greatest risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease as well as other neurodegenerative diseases. Both iron and copper increase in the brain with aging and