Tag Archives: brain

Gas types affect stability of microbubbles and ultrasound mediated brain-targeted drug delivery

AoS. Gas types affect stability of microbubbles and ultrasound mediated brain-targeted drug delivery

Ultrasound (US) is used for clinical diagnosis and therapy. Microbubbles (MBs) as US-contrast agents are applied to detect micro blood flow or specific lesions. Recently, the combination of MBs and US has received much attention for drug

RNA signature in brain lesions of damage or repair in Multiple Sclerosis and the MS-Atlas

AoS. RNA signature in brain lesions of damage or repair in Multiple Sclerosis and the MS-Atlas

We explored mechanistic signatures of different lesion types in the brain of patients with progressive MS: normal-appearing white matter (NAWM), active, chronic active (slowly expanding), inactive and repairing (remyelinating) lesions compared to control brain white matter areas.

Hidden geometry of human connectomes: a key to higher-order brain functional differences

AoS. Hidden Geometry of Human Connectomes: a key to higher-order Brain functional differences

With its complex circuits, the brain enables the entire human activity, psychology, and behaviour. Its evolutionary adaptation evolved towards a complex structure that supports its functional features. Studies have shown that information processing relies on mechanisms of

Why do some people self-harm under distress? Harvard study suggests impulse control is key

AoS. Why do some people self-harm under distress

Self-harm, or non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), refers to people intentionally hurting themselves without intending suicide. Common examples include cutting, burning, or hitting oneself. A growing number of adolescents and young adults report NSSI – yet most have no

Hibernating chipmunk’s brain senses loss of energy

AoS.Hibernating chipmunk's brain senses loss of energy

The vast majority of mammals maintain their body temperature around 40°C throughout their lifetimes; however, hibernating mammals are an exception. Hibernation is an important adaptation to survive harsh conditions, such as frigid environments or starvation. It is

Poverty may affect the developing brain through chronic stress

Socioeconomic disadvantage, which is prevalent in the United States and worldwide, is consistently associated with lower academic achievement and higher risk for emotional and behavioral problems. Exposure to socioeconomic disadvantage during childhood can leave long-lasting imprints on

EML1: an entry point to study cellular mechanisms at the origin of brain malformations

AoS. EML1: an entry point to study cellular mechanisms at the origin of brain malformations.

Cerebral cortical development is a tightly regulated process, depending on dividing progenitor cells that ultimately produce neurons that then migrate to find their appropriate positions in the developing cortex. Certain genetic conditions as well as environmental factors

Matching between adult neurons: feel abandoned? Just call on me

AoS.Matching between adult neurons

Plasticity in the central nervous system allows the adaptation of neural circuits to new circumstances, such as the recovery after brain injury. The mechanisms of neural plasticity include, among others, the formation of new synapses. An example

Lipids keeps shrinking with aging and neurodegeneration

AoS. Lipids keeps shrinking with aging and neurodegeneration.

I remember when my Biology teacher at the secondary school introduced us for the first time to the biochemical components of the living cells. I was immediately fascinated by the elegant code making of the nucleic acids,

Reprogramming skin into brain to study aging and age-related brain diseases

AoS. Reprogramming skin into brain to study aging and age-related brain diseases.

“Inevitable as the passing of time” is a common phrase and a simple truth; in our lives, we may have impactful experiences, grow and learn but, inescapably, we age. It is clear that as we age, our

Retroduplication of rhodopsin gene 400 million years ago diversified the photoreception in fishes

AoS. Retroduplication of rhodopsin gene 400 million years ago diversified the photoreception in fishes.

Animals utilize light from the environment as important information sources. We can discriminate colors, brightness and shapes of objects by visual system. In addition, animals can detect daily and seasonal changes of the light environment to alter

Wrestling with the alligator’s brain

Wrestling with the alligator’s brain. AoS

When some individuals stand up quickly from a sitting or crouched posture, the blood flow to their brain is temporarily reduced. In response to the reduced blood flow, their brain will enter a short period of neural

Physiological brainwashing

Physiological brainwashing. AoS

There is a barrier in the brain, known as the blood-brain barrier, which strictly regulates the exchange of substances between the blood and this organ. The blood-brain barrier restricts the passage of drugs into the brain and

HIV-1 alters mitochondria in neurons and contributes to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

HIV-1 alters mitochondria in neurons and contributes. AoS

Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) enters the brain during the initial stages of infection and can cause neurologic dysfunction. Despite the success of HIV treatment through combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), impaired neurocognitive function remains an important problem

Cannabinoid receptors and incidental associations: a way to creativity?

Animals and humans adapt to changes in the environment through previous experiences. In our daily life, while we are engaged in a particular activity or social event, we are continuously surrounded by random associations between low salience

Bell ringers: Concussion problems in youth football players

Concussion problems in youth football players. AoS

Concussion has become an important topic in sports news and research. While researchers are studying the mental, physical, and emotional effects of concussion within professional, college, and high school athletes; the negative effects of concussion on youth

Early detected Minamata disease victims were the tip of a large iceberg

Early detected Minamata disease. AoS

The Chisso Company began discharging contaminated wastewater into the sea at Minamata in 1932. Twenty-four years later, in 1956, some inhabitants were found with acute, severe, profound neurological disorders, including not only sensory disturbances but also walking,

Consciousness hidden in the brain fissure

Consciousness, informally stated as the subjective feeling of being, comprises of two basic components—arousal (wakefulness) and awareness (awareness of environment and self). Although the posteromedial cortex (PMC), an area hidden in the posterior interhemispheric fissure, has been

Should we (still) believe in the propagating nerve impulse as a purely electrical process?

The propagating nerve impulse is a complex phenomenon. AoS

Processing and integrating information in networks of discrete nerve cells is fundamental to all neural processes, from sensation to movement to cognition. Nerve cells are functionally polarized, making it imperative for the information to be communicated from