Tag Archives: brain
Consciousness hidden in the brain fissure
Consciousness, informally stated as the subjective feeling of being, comprises of two basic components—arousal (wakefulness) and awareness (awareness of environment and self). Although the posteromedial cortex (PMC), an area hidden in the posterior interhemispheric fissure, has been
Should we (still) believe in the propagating nerve impulse as a purely electrical process?
Processing and integrating information in networks of discrete nerve cells is fundamental to all neural processes, from sensation to movement to cognition. Nerve cells are functionally polarized, making it imperative for the information to be communicated from
Heat, diet and lifestyles control longevity in animals and man
The inactivation of the heat shock gene called Sirtuin 1 (Sirt 1) is associated with many chronic diseases such as diabetes, non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative diseases. Factors such as body temperature
The voltage-gated potassium channel, Kv1.3, at the crossroads of glial functions in glioma
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most lethal cancers in adult humans, with a frequency of 6:100.000 people. Despite the current three-modality therapy, which includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, the clinical outcome of GBM patients remains
Detecting math ability with brain potentials
It is known that the various individuals differ in their ability to perform arithmetic calculations. Some people can find mathematics an extremely easy exercise while for others it can become an insurmountable problem. For example, a significant
Brain networks in major depressive disorder
Pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) is poorly understood, because it affects a broad range of motivational, emotional, and cognitive processes, which are difficult to disentangle. Thus, task performance differences between patients and healthy controls may relate
Constructing a Google-Earth-like functional brain atlas
Brain, the final frontier. These are the voyages of the brain cartographers. Their continuing mission: To explore strange new maps, to seek out new areas and new functions, to BOLD-ly go where no one has gone before.
Can EBI2 receptor protect brain cells (oligodendrocytes) from dying during disease?
The four major brain-specific cell types in the brain are: (i) neurons, which transmit and process information via electrical signals, (ii) oligodendrocytes, which insulate neuronal axons with fatty sheets called myelin to ensure fast and complete electrical
Statins: Good for the heart, but do they impact the brain?
High cholesterol, termed hyperlipidemia, is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, keeping cholesterol levels low through diet and exercise has proven benefits for reducing heart disease risk. For adults who cannot meet their cholesterol targets through
The choroid plexus: a new player in the (microbiome-)gut-brain axis
The healthy human gut microbiome contains 100 trillion bacteria, outnumbering the amount of human cells by a factor of 10. These bacteria are important in several crucial processes in our body. Hence, changes in the composition, caused
A powerful tool for the study of CD4 T cells in malaria
Although aimed at controlling invading pathogens, immune responses can sometimes be harmful to the host. Responses against the blood stage of malaria are an example of this: while B cells are activated and produce useful antibodies that
Why iron and copper may be harmful to the aging brain
Similar to other organs, brain function declines with age. Furthermore, age is the single greatest risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease as well as other neurodegenerative diseases. Both iron and copper increase in the brain with aging and
Subjectivity and molecular brain topology
It has become increasingly recognized that something essential is missing in the traditional interpretation of brain signals if this builds solely on the computer-metaphor (‘the brain as a computer’). In the frame of so-called ‘neural field models’
Novel targets for neuroprotection in neonatal brain injury
Developing brain is highly susceptible to injury. Together, prematurity and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) account for 50% of global mortality and significant neurodevelopmental impairment in survivors. HIE is a clinically defined syndrome of disturbed neurologic function due
How a cellular samurai may be linked to autism
Inside cells, a highly dynamic and ever-changing cytoskeleton network determines cell shape (permanent or temporary), powers movement (intracellularly or on a substrate), aids cell division and segregation of chromosomes in daughter cells, and supports cellular extensions like
Analysis of school traumatic brain injury policy content
Millions of children and teens are affected by sports- and recreation-related traumatic brain injuries (TBI) annually. To help reduce the effects of TBIs in youth sports, between 2009 and 2014, all 50 states and the District of
Alzheimer’s risk gene weakens brain cell’s garbage disposal system
APOE ε4 is the most common genetic risk factor for development of Alzheimer’s disease. Having two copies of this gene (one from the mother and one from the father) increases a person’s relative risk to as much
Unraveling the need of vitamin E during early embryonic brain development
During early vertebrate development, the dorsal ectoderm forms the primordium of the central nervous system along the rostro-caudal axis: the neural tube. The closure of the neural tube is a complex process that depends on adequate genetic
Should repetitive behaviours be discouraged in older children with intellectual disabilities?
The importance of considering level of development when understanding the behaviour of individuals with intellectual disability: the case of repetitive behaviours and restricted interests. Children with intellectual disabilities develop more slowly and to a lower ceiling level