Tag Archives: dopamine
Orexin-A (orx-A) is a neuropeptide expressed exclusively in hypothalamic neurons. Orx-A acts through the activation of type-1 (Orx1R) and -2 (Orx2R) receptors present in the mesolimbic circuit and in other brain areas. These neuropeptides have been implicated
Parkinson´s disease is a neurological disorder, which affects around 6 mio people worldwide, a number being expected to double within the next 20 years. It is characterized by a progressive loss of neuronal cells in the brain
Binge eating increases compulsivity through dopamine mechanisms in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis
Binge eating is a common feature of disordered eating and the defining characteristic of binge eating disorder (BED), the most prevalent of all eating disorders. Binge eating, with or without a psychiatric diagnosis, is a likely contributor
The progressive loss of dopaminergic innervation of the basal ganglia, in particular of the dorsal striatum (putamen) is responsible for the motor signs of Parkinson disease such as bradykinesia, rigidity and loss of postural reflexes. Present therapies
It is well known that the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system guides behavior as animals seek rewards from their environment. During the pursuit of reward, subsecond dopamine release events within this pathway represent information related to the rewarding outcome
Rewarding ( pleasurable ) and aversive events give us dissimilar perceptions, which powerfully shape our decisions and therefore behavioral outcomes. In fact, chemical changes, which take place in our brain, are very different under these opposite circumstances.
Apathy or a lack of motivation is a disabling condition making patients feel that they “just can’t be bothered to do things”. Apathy is very common in Parkinson’s disease, affecting up to 70% of patients and causing
Dopamine, often referred as “the happiness hormone”, is one of the most prominent messenger molecules in the human brain. It is a precursor of noradrenaline and adrenaline, which are neurotransmitters as well. Most people heard about dopamine
The glucose sensor is an excellent example of a point-of-care test: patients conduct measurements at home, it is fast, low-cost, and offers easy interpretation of results. There is a growing market to develop similar devices for testing
Circadian clocks rule our lives. In the course of evolution, almost all living creatures developed molecular mechanisms that optimally prepare our bodies for predictable , recurring events related to the regular alternations between day and night. This
Do the different actions required to gain a palatable food make a difference in the activation of the brain?
The motivated behaviour that underlies the food intake is a complex process mediated by various neural circuits. One of these is the mesolimbic system that employs the dopamine (DA) as neurotransmitter. In particular, in the responsiveness to
Citicoline is marketed as a nutritional supplement in the United States and has been shown to influence cellular metabolism in the brain and to contribute to the synthesis of essential neurotransmitters including acetylcholine and dopamine. Citicoline is
Our body organs, such as the brain, are made of different cells that talk to each other by releasing natural chemicals outside the cells. The free chemicals then attach to specialized proteins named receptors, which are anchored