Tag Archives: hormone
Up to 12% of the U.S. population will be diagnosed with a thyroid condition. Because thyroid hormones affect every cell in the body, hypo- (low) and hyper-(high) thyroidism can be difficult to distinguish from other medical conditions.
After World War II, a sharp increase in demand for beef and dairy products, coupled with a burgeoning veterinary pharmaceutical industry, led to a number of changes in animal husbandry, including a reliance upon exogenous hormones to
Can “low calorie”-oil enhance the secretion of incretin hormones with beneficial effects on diabetic patients?
When the human body digests dietary fat (triacylglycerol), hormones from the intestine called incretins are released from the small intestine. These hormones stimulate insulin release and inhibit food intake. The mechanism for the fat-induced incretin release involves
The entire human body is made up of many complicated cells, processes, and interactions. As scientific discoveries are made, it becomes increasingly more evident how multidimensional and interconnected all of the biological systems and pathways of the
Studying potential endocrine disrupting chemicals: comparison of yeast and human cell-based in vitro assays
The production of chemicals for agricultural and industrial use, cosmetics or food additives is steadily increasing. To protect the environment and human health against the potential risks arising from these man-made chemicals, the authorities introduced several programs
Hormones are small compounds which regulate many aspects of life, from organ development to environmental adaptations. Jasmonates are plant hormones controlling various biological processes including flower development and defense against insects and fungi. In order to conserve
Energy is an inevitable part and makes life possible. Globally, over 90 percent of transportation energy requirement is met by fossil fuels. International Energy Agency (IEA) predicts that, if we continue to use the fossil fuel at
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are taken to treat pain and inflammation, and are the most frequently taken over the counter drug type taken worldwide. They work by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, whose products are used by other
Cushing’s disease, named after the neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing, and caused by an adrenocorticotroph hormone (ACTH)-secreting benign tumor of the pituitary, is a rare illness. The pituitary is a gland at the base of the brain that secretes
Cortisol is an adrenal hormone essential for the maintenance of homeostasis, especially in response to stress. When cortisol levels are increased, this is defined as Cushing’s syndrome (CS). CS can be associated with increased morbidity, and when
In case women cease menstruation before the age of 40, this is called premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). This happens to about 1% of the women in the normal population. For women that carry an FMR1 premutation this
Vitamin D, the sunshine hormone, is essential for healthy bones. Vitamin D is found in two basic forms in nature—vitamin D3 which is made by skin exposed to sun rays (cholecaliferol), and vitamin D2 which is made
Everyone agrees that when our intake of sugar, fat and protein exceeds the body’s need for nutrition, excess is stored as fat. Fat in the form of white adipocytes is the body’s reserve of energy, which is
The pituitary gland is considered to be the “master endocrine gland”. It is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, important in controlling growth and development and the functioning of the other endocrine glands.
Under challenging circumstances, such as predator exposure or lack of food, animals naturally secrete stress hormones. Production, secretion and release into the bloodstream of these hormones is tightly regulated by the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (the stress axis), a
Prostate cancer is the second most common male cancer worldwide and the fourth most common cancer overall. In patients with localized prostate cancer, the five-year survival rate approximates to 100%; however, in patients with distant metastases, it
The sex hormone testosterone is mainly produced in the testes and has been traditionally linked to aggressive behavior, not only in humans but also in other animals. In birds, testosterone is involved in regulating aggressive behavior during
Brain disease is an umbrella term, which is used to describe a broad variety of diseases ranging from epilepsy to Alzheimer’s disease to multiple sclerosis and everything in between. Brain diseases differ from each other at the
Physiological adaptations of our body to changes in nutritional status induced by fasting or food intake occur various times per day and are crucial to maintain a healthy metabolic state. To meet this requirement, our body is
Our day-today activities like sleep-wake cycle, hormone release, body temperature and other important bodily functions follow a characteristic rhythm over 24 hours called a circadian rhythm. A ‘master clock’ in brain termed as suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) co-ordinates