Tag Archives: inflammation

Inhibitors of intracellular enzymes for treatment of multiple sclerosis

The protein kinase inhibitor imatinib

Lymphocytes are white blood cells that are central in the immune response to foreign microorganisms. Like all cells, lymphocytes have a membrane, a lipid bilayer, that envelops the content of the cell. Proteins attached to the cell

Unsightly war zones of aging

Unsightly War Zones of Aging

Imagine you were trying to hammer a nail, but instead you accidentally hit your thumb. Aside from pain, you may notice redness, swelling, and warmth of your thumb. These are symptoms of inflammation. When an area of

Fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis: From friend to foe

Fibroblast effects on leukocytes

Our joints are composed of tissue-resident cells, called fibroblasts, which are responsible for maintaining the structure of the joint and repairing damaged tissue. Additionally, we and others have shown that fibroblasts can also influence the types and

Fungal chitin treatment reestablishes the anaerobic bacteria and decreases the intestinal inflammation in mice

The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota acts a natural barrier to colonization and proliferation of opportunistic pathogens, thereby decreasing the risk of intestinal infection and disease. Deregulation of the dynamic crosstalk between the microbiota, intestinal epithelial cells and immune

Macrophages in atherosclerosis; the good, the bad and the foamy?

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory condition in which arteries are narrowed due to the deposition of plaque material to the artery walls. This narrowing can give rise to other cardiovascular events like thrombosis or a stroke. One

Training the immune system to treat Niemann-Pick type C1 disease

Every year, at least 1 in 100,000 people worldwide is born with Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease, a lysosomal storage disease. Lysosomes are cellular compartments which process an array of substrates – from DNA to nutrients –

Polarized light therapy: Illuminating immunity

What is it?: Light has been used as an alternative mode for the treatment of diseases, since the ancient Egyptians basked in the sun to restore their energy. Phototherapies are modern treatments in which light is used

New inflammatory properties of nanoparticles (NPs): NPs can alter the biology of human eosinophils

The term nanoparticles (NPs) refer to particles with a very small size ranging in the nanometer scale. One nanometer (nm) is a unit of measure corresponding to a billionth of a meter. In general, the definition of

Role of the gut in systemic inflammation

The multi-layer wall of the intestine is unique and important due its barrier function for billions of potential deadly gut bacteria and the sterile tissues in the body. For this reason, the intestine is equipped with highly

P2X7 antagonism: a specific tool to decrease inflammatory status in human atherosclerotic vessels?

Atherosclerosis is a dynamic progressive disease of the large arteries characterized by the tendency to accumulate lipids, inflammatory cells, smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix within the sub-endothelial space, and progressing in unpredictable way to different stage.

An introduction to modelling lymphocyte migration in vitro

Lymphocyte recruitment to inflamed endothelial cells (EC) is fundamental to immune homeostasis – providing both cell-mediated defence against disease, while also contributing to the resolution of inflammation. However, the dynamic relationship between lymphocytes and EC can become

Go with the flow: Studying the movement of T-cells to sites of inflammation

Inflammation is the protective response of the immune system that aids the removal of invading infectious agents and repair tissue injury. It involves the movement of white blood cells (leukocytes) from the bloodstream, through the cells lining

Biodegradable microparticles used to prolong drug release to inhibit inflammation in osteoarthritis

Articular cartilage is located on the surfaces of the bones in the synovial joint. It protects the underlying bones from damage and shock, but also functions as a lubricant for frictionless movements of the human body. Damage

Incretin hormones and brain microglia team up to regulate brain homeostasis

The entire human body is made up of many complicated cells, processes, and interactions. As scientific discoveries are made, it becomes increasingly more evident how multidimensional and interconnected all of the biological systems and pathways of the

The mechanisms of MCP-1 production in tumor microenvironments: Tumor cells are not home alone

When you look at tumors, you may think they are composed of 100% tumor cells. The fact is that tumor tissues contain not only tumor cells but also a variety of non-tumor stromal cells, including fibroblasts, endothelial

Immune damage of Apical Epidermal Cap impedes limb regeneration in frog

The evolution of the immune system in terrestrial vertebrates has allowed a high efficiency in the protection against mutated and cancer cells, foreign substances and microbes. Immune cells however become fully immunocompetent only late during development or

Chemokines, an answer to the gut inflammation?

Our gut is a complex organ which not only digests the food but also acts as an immune organ. The gut is lined by a single layer of specialized cells called as intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) which

Short technical steps to success in inflammation research

Taking a chemical compound from early discovery to clinical trials is a process that is fraught with risks. It is therefore, important to optimize preclinical test systems to improve the chances of developing a compound likely to

Disturbed sleep matters to patients with ankylosing spondylitis

Disturbed sleep is a significant problem for patients suffering with long-term, inflammatory conditions such as Ankylosing Spondylitis and non-radiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis. Alongside other symptoms, these conditions primarily affect the axial skeleton and connective tissue, causing pain and

Glucose – a bitter sweet for the brain

During ischemic stroke, insufficient supply of oxygen and glucose leads to severe damage of cerebral tissue. Since the most important energy substrate for the brain is glucose, high blood sugar levels could be a strategy to enhance