Tag Archives: metabolism

Soccer and metabolism: what are the limits of using saliva to understand the body responses?

AoS. Soccer and metabolism.

Science is playing an increasingly important role in the world of sport. Understanding the molecular basis that relates to the degree of training, athletic performance or risk of injury can represent a major advance in ensuring the

Heart medication and metabolism: What physicians should reflect on to keep them in harmony

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death globally and have been for a long time. This spotlight has ensured that doctors treating patients with heart problems have a wide variety of medications to work with. Most

Osteoarthritis alleviation by rewiring cellular energy metabolism

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic disorder associated with degeneration of the joint, including articular cartilage, subchondral bone, synovial tissue, tendons, periarticular muscles that involves low-grade systemic inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of chondrocyte differentiation (hypertrophy)

Our biological clock controls mitochondrial activity in a tissue-dependent manner

The molecular circadian clock and tissue-specific clocks

Mitochondria are the cell organelles that are responsible for the largest part of cellular energy production. Within these organelles both the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) are taking place. In these cycles ATP,

Targeting cholesterol metabolism to suppress prostate cancer metastasis

Targeting cholesterol metabolism to suppress prostate cancer metastasis

Metastatic prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men worldwide. Prostate cancer itself is one of the most common cancers in men. At the early stages, localized prostate cancer usually grows slowly and

Metabolic and non-metabolic roles of pyruvate kinase M2 isoform in retinal rod photoreceptor cells

Pyruvate kinase M2 isoform regulates photoreceptor structure

Glucose is the main source of fuel for every living cell. Normal cells take up glucose and burn it in the mitochondria (oxidative phosphorylation) for energy production (ATP synthesis). Rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, and

Genetics, human metabolism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Relationship between genetype, phenothype and diet in the NAFLD context

Advancement in technology has introduced a new era of genetic investigation: the so called next-generation sequencing. This innovative approach has allowed to extend the study of our genome and has led to the identification of numerous variants

Optimization of multi-omic genome-scale models

Metabolism is the set of biochemical reactions in a cell that maintain its living state. As these reactions are essential, it is vital that metabolic networks in all living organisms are well-characterized. This can be achieved by

The influence of phthalates and bisphenol A on the obesity development and glucose derangement

Obesity and diabetes epidemics represent a real health problem worldwide. There are about 2 billion overweight adults out of which over 600 million are obese. Based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reports it has been

A murine type 2 diabetes mellitus model mimicking metabolic characteristics similar to humans

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) which accounts for more than 95% of all diabetes cases is a heterogeneous, multifactorial disorder typified by hyperglycemia with gradual decline in insulin action (insulin resistance), followed by the inability of beta

Antireductants – essential counterparts of antioxidants

The hype around ‘antioxidants for health’ largely overshadows the existence of antireductants. While antioxidants by definition decrease oxidative stress, antireductants decrease reductive stress (Fig. 1). Despite opposite reactivities, antioxidants and antireductants have in common that they are

A new picture for an old biology, HDL as you’ve never seen it before

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is known as good cholesterol since high levels of HDL are associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Unlike its counterpart, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), whose actions are combatted by statins, clinical outcome trials for

Effects of hypoxia/reoxygenation in the antioxidant system of crabs

Variations in the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water naturally induce hypoxia/reoxygenation cycles in various regions of aquatic environments of freshwater (rivers and lakes) and marine (coastal areas). However, in recent decades, human activities that discharge domestic

A simple assay to measure phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase activity

Enzymes are proteins that help chemical reactions to occur within cells and thus, they are essential to their life and function. They produce most of the molecules found in cells, and are classified by their function and

Biotransformation of bufadienolides in human liver microsomes

Bufadienolides are a family of cardiac aglycone compounds with the inhibitory activity of Na+/K+-ATPase. They exist extensively in both animal and plant species, such as Crassulaceae, Ranunculaceae, Bufonidae and Colubridae families. In traditional Chinese medicine, bufadienolides are

Polar bears and flame retardant chemicals as environmental pollutants

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are man-made chemicals that were used on many industrial and consumer products to reduce fire risk. The commercial PBDE mixture that was used extensively in North America for application to polyurethane foam, textiles

Can pharmacogenetics testing help reduce psychiatric suffering?

Pharmacogenetics testing is relatively new to the field of psychiatry having been introduced only within recent years and at an affordable cost in the clinical setting. The case history illustrated in this report describes how pharmacogenetics testing

A cancers addiction to glutamine affects the whole body and could lead to complex skin rashes

Signs or symptoms far from the vicinity of a developing cancer in the body can give clues of its presence (paraneoplastic syndromes). The skin can offer visible markers of abnormal metabolic activity caused by tumourigenesis, in the

Metabolism and pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma

Tumors are named according to the organ or the tissue whose cells undergo biological derangement causing the loss of the control mechanisms that normally limit cell growth. Therefore, breast tumors derives from the cells of the ducts of

A platform for measuring carbon and nitrogen levels of metabolism-related genes in durum wheat

Multiple lines of evidence confirm that as a result of human activities the greenhouse gas emissions are rising more rapidly than predicted and, consequently, the world is warming more quickly. Global climate change threatens for food security