Tag Archives: mitochondria

How mitochondria “sense” and respond to changes in oxygen concentration in vivo

AoS. How mitochondria sense

Mitochondria – intracellular organelles – are our organism’s “powerhouse”, the main oxygen sensors that play the signaling role as modulators of oxygen consumption and regulators of the rate of oxygen delivery from the extracellular environment. Changes in

The type of mitochondrial DNA mutations more than their quantity affects organismal fitness

AoS. The type of mitochondrial DNA mutations

Present in the majority of cells, mitochondria play a major role in the production of cellular and organismal energy, and contribute to cellular/ion homeostasis. Mitochondria possess multiple copies of their own genome (mtDNA), that encodes 13 essential

Alterations in mitochondrial metabolism induced by chronic fluoride exposure

AoS. Alterations in mitochondrial metabolism induced by chronic fluoride exposure.

Fluoride (F) is widely available in nature and has been successfully used to control dental caries worldwide. In addition, beneficial effects have been shown on the development of teeth and bones. However, high concentrations of F over

Inhibition of bovine insulin amyloid fibrillation and toxicity by silibinin

The misfolding and subsequent aggregation into β-sheet rich assemblies of endogenous polypeptides, such as β-amyloid peptide, tau protein, α-synuclein, and insulin are the underlying causes of diabetes and many neurodegenerative diseases. Although, no sequence or structural similarity

Mitophagy in health and disease

Mitophagy in health and disease. AoS

Mitochondria are cellular organelles specialized for energy production, and critically influence several features of cellular metabolism and physiology. Maintenance of a healthy mitochondrial pool is a prerequisite for cellular and tissue homeostasis. Compromised mitochondrial function results in

HIV-1 alters mitochondria in neurons and contributes to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

HIV-1 alters mitochondria in neurons and contributes. AoS

Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) enters the brain during the initial stages of infection and can cause neurologic dysfunction. Despite the success of HIV treatment through combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), impaired neurocognitive function remains an important problem

Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder

Mitochondrial Dysfunction In Autism Spectrum Disorder. AoS

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects ~2% of children in the United States. The etiology of autism spectrum disorder likely involves environmental factors triggering physiological abnormalities in genetically sensitive individuals. One of these major physiological abnormalities in children

When cell death is better than cell survival: Monocyte response to lysates from different strains of Campylobacter jejuni

Schematic representation of monocyte responses to Campylobacter jejuni lysates. AoS

Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative pathogen, is one of the leading bacterial causes of gastroenteritis world-wide. The invasion and multiplication of C. jejuni is a multistep process that includes interaction with the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). The only

Heat, diet and lifestyles control longevity in animals and man

Heat, Diet and Lifestyles control Longevity in Animals and Man

The inactivation of the heat shock gene called Sirtuin 1 (Sirt 1) is associated with many chronic diseases such as diabetes, non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative diseases. Factors such as body temperature

Mitochondrial Complex I activity signals antioxidant response through ERK5

Mitochondrial Complex I activity signal

The vast majority of eukaryotic cells perform oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), which uses the energy released by the mitochondrial oxidation of certain metabolites, i.e. glucose, to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). OXPHOS is highly efficient in energy production but

Our biological clock controls mitochondrial activity in a tissue-dependent manner

The molecular circadian clock and tissue-specific clocks

Mitochondria are the cell organelles that are responsible for the largest part of cellular energy production. Within these organelles both the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) are taking place. In these cycles ATP,

The synthetic cannabinoid XLR-11 and the impaired control of mitochondrial function by the endocannabinoid system as its underlying mechanism of nephrotoxicity

mitochondrial function by the endocannabinoid system

Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) comprise a diverse group of new psychoactive substances (NPS) designed to activate at least one of the main cannabinoid receptors (i.e. CB1R, CB2R). Variations of SC have rapidly surfaced over the past few years,

Butyrate enhances mitochondria respiration when challenged with oxidative stress

Butyrate is a ubiquitous short-chain fatty acid (4 carbons in length) that has been shown to have many health benefits. Butyrate is principally produced by the trillions of microbial cells that live in our intestine commonly known

Adrenaline and liver mitochondria proliferation

The aim of our work was to define a possible role of adrenaline in the process of “mitochondrial biogenesis”. Mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cells, use oxygen as the last acceptor of electrons in their electron chain

Sequencing of mtDNA of multiple single mitochondrion isolated from live cells identifies common heteroplasmic sites

Mitochondria are organelles present in all eukaryotic cells, including brain cells, and supply ATP required for cellular physiology through a series of redox reactions known as oxidative phosphorylation. They are unique in their requirement for expression of

Aflatoxin B1: a foodborne contaminant which impairs sperm quality and fertilization competence

The gradual decline in fertility of human and farm animals over the past few decades coincides with intensive industrial and agricultural development. Multiple environmental factors affect sperm function and fertility, among them are aflatoxins, poisonous byproducts of

Zebrafish is an attractive model to anticipate drug-induced renal injury in humans

Most of the innovative drugs with important therapeutic benefits are not approved or are removed from the clinical practice due to drug-induced toxicity. The kidneys are one of the most important target organs of drug toxicity because

Unregulated oxygen levels in mammalian cell culture changes cell physiology

As aerobic organisms we continuously utilize oxygen from the surrounding environment which ultimately participates in the formation of useful bioenergetic intermediates. Approximately 21% of the air we breathe is composed of oxygen, but the quantity of oxygen

Sub-mitochondrial map of intermembrane space bridging components

Our work reports on generally applicable tools for the biological community that are now allowing researchers to address one of the most commonly asked questions in biomedical research, “What is interacting with or in proximity with a

Calcium ion by replacing magnesium ion unravels an unexpected role for the mitochondrial F1FO-ATPase

The F1FO-ATPase/synthase is universally known as a complex enzyme machinery which, embedded by the FO portion in the inner mitochondrial membrane and the catalytic F1 sector protruding in the matrix, matches the transmembrane proton flux which occurs