Tag Archives: optogenetics
Auditory signals, including human speech, are characterized by many features, one important being sound frequency, which is perceived as pitch. In normal hearing people, the cochlea in the inner ear translates different sound frequencies into neural activation
It is well known that the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system guides behavior as animals seek rewards from their environment. During the pursuit of reward, subsecond dopamine release events within this pathway represent information related to the rewarding outcome
Rewarding ( pleasurable ) and aversive events give us dissimilar perceptions, which powerfully shape our decisions and therefore behavioral outcomes. In fact, chemical changes, which take place in our brain, are very different under these opposite circumstances.
For centuries, engineers have built with traditional materials, such as woods or metals, which can’t dynamically respond to changes in their environment. Intuitively, we know that biological materials can do things synthetic materials cannot. For example, our