Tag Archives: RNA
Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are a class of biomolecules that are generated in the nucleus to carry genetic information from the nucleus to different parts of the cells for making functional proteins. Because of their importance, mRNAs’ trafficking
We explored mechanistic signatures of different lesion types in the brain of patients with progressive MS: normal-appearing white matter (NAWM), active, chronic active (slowly expanding), inactive and repairing (remyelinating) lesions compared to control brain white matter areas.
In the central nervous system (CNS) nerve regeneration is severely hampered making recovery from lesions such as spinal cord injury (SCI) extremely difficult and one of the most formidable challenges for regenerative medicine. So far, there are
Asthma is a common chronic disease consisting of constriction and inflammation of the airways as well as structural changes known as remodelling (Fig. 1). 5-10% of patients have severe asthma, whereby symptoms persist despite regular and correct
The central dogma of molecular biology, which is still largely considered one of the most core fundamental concepts in the field, states that DNA is transcribed to RNA, which is then translated into protein. Although this statement
Biology succeeds by maintaining intricate networks of chemical and structural information far from equilibrium. The guiding premise of the highlighted manuscript1 asks whether synthetic and materials chemistry will be able to achieve a bottom-up construction of alternative
The majority of protein-coding genes in nuclear genomes are interrupted by spliceosomal introns or, less often, by inteins. These intervening sequences are spliced at the RNA or protein level, respectively, so that intact proteins become reconstituted. In
The influence of DNA base modifications such as cytosine methylation in gene regulation is well established. These DNA modifications can act as epigenetic, non-nucleotide changes, modifications that ultimately shape the phenotype of the organism. Recently, a new
The RNA World Hypothesis is a model for the early evolution of life on earth proposed in 1986 by the molecular biologist Walter Gilbert, in which he posited that the earliest forms of life were likely composed
Plants are unable to move away from harmful environmental conditions that affect their well-being and that ultimately compromise their growth and thereby crop production. To cope with a constantly changing environment, they have evolved unique and elaborate
Cell division is an important process in development, tissue repair and reproduction in a wide variety of animals. The purpose of cell division is to separate the genetic material, or DNA, into two newly forming daughter cells.
Unraveling multiple checkpoints for accurate selection of initiator tRNA on ribosomes for translation initiation
Ribosomes comprise a large (50S) and a small (30S) subunits. To begin (initiate) protein synthesis, the two subunits associate on an mRNA (70S). Organisms possess two classes of tRNAs, the initiators (i-tRNA) and the elongators. The i-tRNA
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) take over 5–10% of the eukaryotic proteome and regulate the gene localization and translation. On the other hand, the mutations in RBPs have been discovered to be associated with disease risk, such as FUS
A central doctrine for a gene expression is typically from the DNA coding sequence to the RNA transcript and then to the protein. So, the normal function of a gene can be disrupted by suppression, or so-called
tRNA is an integral part of the protein translation process. It translates the genetic code from mRNA to make the corresponding protein. The process of protein translation requires a well-defined structure of specific tRNA and its ability
Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) have complicated pathologies influenced by genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Mechanisms of AIDs remain mysteries but numerous hypotheses have been proposed. Several hypotheses are discussed to present their unique explanations and to demonstrate that
Human cells have two RNase H enzymes, HI and H2. RNase H enzymes degrade RNA but only when an RNA strand is hybridized to a DNA strand forming an RNA-DNA heteroduplex. These enzymes are present in almost
Microsporidia are unicellular eukaryotic parasites, infecting virtually all animals including humans. They are characterized by peculiar morphological and genetic features, which are the result of their extreme adaptation to the intracellular lifestyle. Interestingly, the infection apparatus in
A hallmark of all living organisms is the presence of genetic material within each cell; this material is invariantly composed of a specific class of biological molecules known as the nucleic acids. While the more familiar variety
Unravel the key genes potentially related to high strength of cotton fiber by comparative phenotypic and genomic analyses
The demand of high strength of cotton fibers has been increased dramatically with the advent of modern high speed spinning technology for producing yarn. Cotton fiber is a gigantic single cell which consists of almost pure cellulose.