Tag Archives: X chromosome

DNA explosions in the evolution of Hawaiian flies: consequences and questions

The chromosome set of each species carries the organism’s DNA sequences or genome. Genomes of higher organisms contain the essential coding DNA, plus the typically more abundant noncoding DNA. This segment carries various repeated DNA sequences. The

Human cells can count their chromosomes – but how do they do?

Human cells normally carry 46 chromosomes. There are 2 gonosomes and 22 pairs of autosomes, numbered from 1 through 22. In male there are as gonosomes an X- and a Y-chromosome; in female there are two X-chromosomes.

A new hypothesis of autoimmune diseases: stress and the nucleolus

Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) have complicated pathologies influenced by genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Mechanisms of AIDs remain mysteries but numerous hypotheses have been proposed. Several hypotheses are discussed to present their unique explanations and to demonstrate that

X chromosome inactivation and escape: skipping Lyon’s law causes sex differences and disease

The sex chromosomes differ between males (XY) and females (XX) in mammals. The present-day sex chromosomes evolved from a pair of look-alike progenitor chromosomes that stopped recombining once sex was determined by a gene on the Y

How tree frogs keep their Y chromosomes healthy

Sex chromosomes are the pair of chromosomes that fate whether we become male or female. Females carry two X chromosomes, while males carry one X and one Y chromosome. These chromosomes are quite special among the genome: