Tag Archives: RNA

Helicase and ribosome share a common mechanism of nucleic acid unwinding

In the cell DNA is present in the duplex form and many messenger RNAs (mRNAs) can form duplex structures. To access the genetic information (represented by nucleotides or codons) on the single-stranded (ss) nucleic acids (NA) by

How selenium is incorporated into proteins: structural view of selenocysteine ‘recoding’

Selenium is an essential micronutrient for human health. It is present in proteins as a special amino acid, selenocysteine, which is the so-called 21st amino acid. Selenocysteine resembles serine and cysteine, where the selenium atom (Se) replaces

Whole-cell computational models can predict how genes influence behavior

Since the early 1900’s, scientists have known that cells are composed of multiple components, including small molecules, DNA, RNA, and protein. Over the past fifty years, scientists have systematically measured these individual components and their interactions. Despite

An important new tool to assess chemotherapy response in cancer patients

Although chemotherapy agents are widely used in the treatment of cancer, it is not widely known that for many patients with solid tumours, only a fraction receive a survival benefit from chemotherapy.  This is particularly the case

A new general principle of virology

Shin et al describe for the first time a novel strategy used by persistent viruses to temporally regulate expression of the structural proteins that make up their virus particles. The viruses that infect humans and other mammals

Punching above their weight: how the smallest RNAs offer great promise for cancer biology

In recent decades, scientists have witnessed transformative developments in the field of RNA biology. RNA molecules are similar in composition to their more famous DNA counterparts (they are both nucleic acids), but are present in a variety

Is it possible reversible and irreversible aggregation of proteins?

The discovery of protein chain regions responsible for protein aggregation is an important result of studying of the molecular mechanisms of prion diseases, and different proteinopathies associated with the formation of pathological aggregations through the prion mechanism.

Living on the edge: Planctomycetes at the oxic / anoxic interface in northern wetlands

Peat – accumulating northern wetlands make up approximately one-third of the global soil organic carbon pool. Nutrient – poor and acidic conditions, as well as low temperatures and decay – resistant Sphagnum moss-dominated vegetation, result in low

A resource for studying the role of RNA-binding proteins in human disease

Advances in science and technology have not only made accessing and analyzing the personal genomic information a reality but also rapid and cost effective. Every living organism is made of cells and every cell is made of

Controlling gene expression in bacteria

Gene expression enables cells to implement the instructions encoded within the genes on their DNA. Being able to control gene expression is therefore key to this most fundamental biological process, so determining cell fate and behaviour. Cells

What is necessary to be prion-like domain?

Prions are infectious proteins that can assume various conformations, including amyloid fibrils that can serve as a matrix and “infect” other proteins both within and between the cells and between organisms. However, it was observed that yeast

A new type of mycovirus

Virus infects Aspergillus fumigatus, the fungus that can cause the human disease aspergillosis Researchers, led by Dr Robert Coutts, Leverhulme Research Fellow from the School of Life and Medical Sciences at the University of Hertfordshire, and Dr

A small RNA, microRNA-155, “micromanages” inflammation and renewal of neurons in the brain

The immune system is like a silent army, protecting the body from enemy viruses and bacteria. Inflammation is part of this response, acting to eliminate pathogens and initiate tissue repair. Most of the time, our immune systems

Sugars in circulating blood reflect breast cancer biology

In our studies, consisting of measurements and analyses, we have shown that the sugar composition in the serum of breast cancer patients reflects the biology of their breast tumours. Patients with different kinds of breast tumours have

A method for studying mouse mammary tumorigenesis

Metastasis is the last step of primary breast cancer progression in which cells from the primary tumor leave and go to other organs. Breast cancer cells often metastasize to the lung, among other organs. Each step in

MicroRNAs and physical activity

Physical activity has a recognised role in the prevention of non-communicable diseases, cancer included. To maintain a satisfying health level, the World Health Organization (WHO) has assumed that everyone have to practice at least 150 minutes of

A variant RNA polymerase controls bacterial pathogenicity and stress responses

In order for cells to carry out normal functions, the genetic information stored in DNA needs to be first converted to RNA. This conversion – known as transcription – is carried out by a class of enzymes

Conditional mutations in drosophila

In 1865, Gregor Mendel discovered the laws of inheritance for the traits of living organisms. Reproduction, the major property of living matter and mode of its existence in the Universe, found itself in the spotlight of biology.

Making it easier to study personalized genomic biomarkers of lung disease

In the past few years, there has been significant progress in understanding how lung disease develops and predict who will respond to certain targeted therapies by obtaining lung tissue from research participants and studying changes in mechanistic

Helpful tool for the characterization of cancer

Follicular lymphoma is a sort of blood cancer and among the most frequent subtypes of indolent (painless) lymphomas. Most patients are diagnosed very late, when the illness is in an advanced stage. The origins of the tumor