Tag Archives: RNA

Repetitive growth and fission of artificial cells with gene replication

Reconstruction of an artificial cell is one of the biggest challenges in elucidating the border between living and non-living things. Liposomes are compartments that have lipid bilayer membranes, like cells, and therefore are used as an artificial

Identify the bacteria within and on your-self

The human intestine (gut) and other body sites harbor numerous microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, archaea, including fungi), collectively referred to as the microbiome or microbiota. The genome of these microbes encodes for metabolic functions and contribute significantly to the

From famine to feast: cells can adapt to nutritional changes

Sometimes we have mostly vegetables, at other times, meat; sometimes we eat much, at other times, little. Our diet can be quite changeable. This is all the more true for animals, which need to content themselves with

Two kinds of novel osmoregulation pathways in Escherichia coli

To cope with severe environmental changes, cell is equipped with various stress response pathways. Osmotic upshift (hyperosmotic shock) triggers water efflux from bacterial cell, and the resulting cell shrinkage is sensed by osmosensors embedded in the cytoplasmic

Hand disinfectant with activity against all viruses

Across the hospitals worldwide the same procedure can be seen to take place: the doctor or the nurse applies disinfectant (sanitizer) on their hand before examining the patient. In doing so, she or he inactivates bacteria, yeasts

Specific synthetic nucleic acids instead antibodies

 For a long time immunological methods have been applied in biological research as well as for detection and evaluation of various substances in clinical analysis of body fluids. Serum proteins, antibodies, form integral parts in all variants

Alternative splicing: the new frontier in diabetes research

The human genome is predicted to contain 22.000 coding genes, but more than 200.000 proteins are expressed in human cells. This discrepancy is explained at least in part by the presence of alternative splicing (AS), a key

Certain transcripts synthesized by RNA polymerase III in mammals became polyadenylation-competent

It has been known for 40 years that eukaryotic mRNA molecules contain a region of up to 250 adenine residues at the 3’ end. This poly(A) tail mediates mRNA nuclear export, translation, and protection from degradation in

Ribose hydroxyl group summary

We usually think of enzymes – the molecules that drive all the reactions in our cells – as being proteins, but many scientists believe that the earliest enzymes may have been made of RNA. RNA, which is

A new technique for quantification of small RNA variants with a single-nucleotide resolution

Non – protein – coding regions of the genome are widely transcribed to produce non – coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which play a crucial role in various biological processes and diseases. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have

In silico prediction of ebolavirus RNA polymerase inhibition

A virus at work: Let us assume that you are a virus that just infected a cell (the HOST CELL) of an individual (the PATIENT). What is your vicious objective? You want to make copies of yourself

Neurodegeneration-associated RNA-binding protein, FUS, regulates mRNA length

RNA processing, including alternative regulations of transcription initiation, splicing, and 3’ end formation of pre – mRNA, is a highly specialized mechanism that enables to generate multiple isoforms from a single gene. This mechanism expands transcriptome and

Pitfalls in Acanthamoeba genotyping

Acanthamoeba is a protozoan (a eukaryotic microorganism), widespread in several natural environments such as soil and water as a free-living microbial predator. However, it may occasionally infect humans and other animals causing diseases, like keratitis, a sight-threatening

The molecular analysis of tumor cells in pancreatic tissue – searching for a needle in a haystack

In cancer research usually the tumor cell specific abnormalities are of interest: gene mutations, production of abnormal proteins, production of abnormal quantity of proteins, tumor cells treatment response. But the molecular analysis of pancreatic tumor samples poses

Going my way? A tale of enzyme recruitment and activation

Protein synthesis is an energetically costly cellular process, in part due to the metabolic requirements of ribosome assembly and gene-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) production.  Consequently, biosynthetic flux through the protein translation pathway is tightly regulated while translational

A factor that regulates the expression of HIV genes

Proteins are the machinery of life. Nearly everything in a cell is manufactured by, regulated by or composed of proteins, which are encoded in genes. When a cell needs a particular protein, the DNA encoding the protein

Silencing suppressor proteins shape virus-host co-evolution

Plant viruses are amongst the most important pathogens causing huge economic losses worldwide by reducing crop quality and quantity. A better understanding of the viral infection processes and plant defense strategies is important for crop improvement. During

Slug transcription factor activates its own expression during epithelial to mesenchymal transition

Cancer is a highly aggressive and challenging disease. In several instances, symptoms are not evident until the disease progresses to an advanced stage and hence, it is amongst the leading causes of human mortality. Despite considerable attempts

Virus containing mealybug DNA kills mealybug

One way of self-regulating protein synthesis by animals is suppression of the relevant messenger RNA (mRNA); molecules that translate into amino acids and act as building blocks for protein. The mechanism, called RNA interference (RNAi), works by

Adapting sperm RNA as a fertility diagnostic for the male

Infertility is a global public health issue affecting about 13 percent of couples of reproductive age. After one year of unprotected intercourse, couples having difficulties to conceive often seek reproductive care. Known causes of infertility are typically