Tag Archives: DNA

Zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms

Zinc is an essential trace element with integral roles in numerous biological processes, including enzymatic function, protein structure, and cell signaling pathways. This metal serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor for about 300 different proteins. Abnormal

Your DNA goes places you have never been: What does this mean for forensic scientists interpreting DNA found at a crime scene?

During a criminal investigation, items are commonly examined for DNA to try to identify a potential suspect (Fig. 1).  But is this DNA really from someone involved in the crime or has it got there through innocent

How Vitamin C affects the immune system

DNA contains four bases, A, C, G and T (Fig.1). There are 3 billion of these bases in the human genome, and they code for about 22,000 genes. Because each cell carries the same genetic information –

G-quadruplexes: novel DNA structures controlling life from the beginning

The process by which a single cell, the zygote, becomes a fully formed organism has been a historic scientific enigma. Now we know that the information stored in the genes of the DNA is the responsible for

Effects of Cadmium on amphibians

Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms. It causes abnormal fetus development, cancer, DNA mutations; it impairs growth, and compromises the functions of the reproductive, respiratory and endocrine systems. Cadmium enters the aquatic system through industrial

Crafting and grafting of new cells to treat epidermolysis bullosa

Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a disease that causes the skin to become extremely fragile, which leads to the formation of blisters. Depending on the form the disease takes, ranging from relatively mild to terribly severe, the blistering

How actinomycin binds to DNA and exerts its mechanism of action

In this remarkably simple and profound article — recently appearing in the March issue of the Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics — Henry M. Sobell describes his theory for the existence of “premeltons” in DNA —

How cancer begins and how to prevent it

Cancer is a problem of chemical carcinogenesis. This means that chemicals are involved in the processes leading to cancer.  Knowledge of how certain molecules work is, therefore, essential for understanding how cancer begins.  The chemicals that cause

Genes on or off! How regulatory DNA variations disrupt the balance of P53 and cMYC binding

Identification of causative DNA variants in common complex diseases is very important to screen individuals with high-risk for diseases and for developing therapies to target the genetic cause of diseases, in particular cancer. DNA variations that lie

DNA unwinding mechanism of helicases

Helicases are a class of proteins that are responsible for separating DNA duplex into single strands, which is a precursor to many types of DNA transactions in the cell. According to the structures, helicases fall broadly into

Protection from DNA-damage with the natural compound resveratrol

Resveratrol is currently known as a health-beneficial natural compound that is contained in grape skins, red wine, and other natural foods. Recent studies suggest that the compound could elongate the life spans of several organisms through a

Modalities to overcome cancer cells safeguard

The increase of intracellular concentration without raising the applied drug doses is big challenge for cancer treatments. Cancer cells employ multiple mechanisms to resists the anticancer drugs action. One of the mechanisms involves P-glycoprotein. The role of

Identify the bacteria within and on your-self

The human intestine (gut) and other body sites harbor numerous microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, archaea, including fungi), collectively referred to as the microbiome or microbiota. The genome of these microbes encodes for metabolic functions and contribute significantly to the

β-Carotene requirement for anti-aging depends on genetic background

Cellular telomere, a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences of TTAGGG, resides on both ends of chromosomes and its length is shortened by reflecting the replication number of chromosomal DNA, accordingly, telomere length is the most reliable indicator

Aberrantly methylated DNA regions in IgA Nephropathy patients affect the disease

The genome can influence the onset and the development of the diseases in several manner, and in the last years several studies have revealed the new role of the DNA methylation in this framework. The DNA methylation

Can we select best sperm?

About 48.5 million couples worldwide have been unable to birth a child after five years or more, and have used assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Male infertility is a cause in 30-50% of these cases. Infertile men tend

Why identify microscopic photosynthetic bacteria called Cyanobacteria?

Cyanobacteria, the small, harmless bacteria, are invisible to the naked eye. Cyanobacteria photosynthesize like all plants do and thus produce the oxygen we breath. In nature they can be found almost everywhere from the open ocean, to

Ex-vivo percutaneous absorption of enrofloxacin

Enrofloxacin is an antibiotic from the fluoroquinolone family used to cure several infections. This antibiotic inhibits DNA replication required for bacterial growth. It is against a wide range of bacteria, including those resistant to other antibiotics. Enrofloxacin

Hand disinfectant with activity against all viruses

Across the hospitals worldwide the same procedure can be seen to take place: the doctor or the nurse applies disinfectant (sanitizer) on their hand before examining the patient. In doing so, she or he inactivates bacteria, yeasts

An “appealing” small virus

In 1975 in London , an australian researcher, doctor Yvonne Cossart has detected by immunological procedures a new virus in the serum of a blood donor; the name of the blood pocket was B19 so this virus