Tag Archives: DNA

Reconstruction of chromosomal structures

Under a certain approximation, the following simplified format can be adopted. DNA is considered as a very long sequence in the {A,C,T,G} alphabet. Certain regions of the sequence with specific positions have a particular role and are

HOX genes: The Rosetta Stone of the human cells biology

The cell memory program is a biological process that oversees several aspects of the cell life: i) where the new generated cell will be located ii) the fate of a new cell and the cell phenotype; iii)

Single nucleotide polymorphisms as genomic markers for high-throughput pharmacogenomic studies

DNA is a double strand molecule composed of nucleotide subunits, consisting of three components: a sugar, a phosphate group and one of four nitrogen-containing base, (Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine or Thymine). Among humans, DNA molecules are 99.9% identical.

A transcriptomic approach for cardiac (heart) safety assessment

New drug discovery relies on several phases of safety assessment. One such prominent in vitro safety assessment assay is the “hERG potassium channel assay” for cardiac safety. If a compound blocks the hERG potassium channel in a

Life on sulfur. Why we need complete genomes

The ability of bacteria to grow on inorganic compounds like sulfur was discovered by Russian microbiologist Sergey Winogradskij in 1888. First, he studied a sulfur bacterium of the Beggiatoaceae family to demonstrate that it can produce energy

Another prince awakened Sleeping Beauty?

Tumor suppressor genes are one of the body’s defenses against uncontrolled growth of tumor cells. When these genes are ‘silenced,’ or prevented from doing their work, the abnormal cells grow unchecked, usually with fatal consequences to the

The autonomous glycosylation of Giant, but sweet, viruses

The most of proteins carry sugars on them, which significantly modify their properties such as biological activity, solubility and resistance to protein-degrading enzymes. The sugars on proteins drive several fundamental biological mechanisms, such as hormones response, immune

Digital model of the cancer cell

We are postulating that human cells should be analyzed as analog/digital systems (biological computers) capable of digitalizing the analog information from the environment, processing that information in digital form and producing a programmed action according to that

Sperm DNA damage and its role in fertility

One way or another, it takes two people to make a baby.  Under normal circumstances, a sperm and an egg fuse to make an embryo however there are numerous occasions under which this process needs a little

Identification of old and contemporary human skeletal remains using an automated extraction method

In many forensic cases, bones are the only potential source of genetic material. Analyses of bone samples, especially old skeletal remains, is a challenging task due to the low amounts of DNA achieved and the additionally degraded

Ribose hydroxyl group summary

We usually think of enzymes – the molecules that drive all the reactions in our cells – as being proteins, but many scientists believe that the earliest enzymes may have been made of RNA. RNA, which is

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of genomic DNA from in vitro grown tomato

Conservation of plant genetic resources is necessary for food security and to safeguard biodiversity which is essential for genetic engineering and plant breeding programmes. Conservation of plant resources can be achieved either in their natural habitats (in

Medieval chainmail motif stabilizes DNA nanostructures

The field of nanotechnology refers to all objects in the size range between 1 and 100 nanometers, which correspond to one billionth of a meter. This dimension is hard to imagine and it can be defined as

Risk modifier(s) of susceptibility to pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is an acute form of cancer of the white blood cells, characterized by the overproduction and accumulation of immature precursors known as lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of leukemia in children

Changes in 3-dimentional chromatin structure as a mean to relieve oxidative stress?

DNA in our cells is packaged into a structure called chromatin, which is mainly a protein-DNA complex. Chromatin needs to be loosened for fundamental processes to take place, such as decoding genetic information (i.e. gene expression) and

Pitfalls in Acanthamoeba genotyping

Acanthamoeba is a protozoan (a eukaryotic microorganism), widespread in several natural environments such as soil and water as a free-living microbial predator. However, it may occasionally infect humans and other animals causing diseases, like keratitis, a sight-threatening

Do Bucentaur family proteins represent true monsters in the fight against stress?

The BCNT (Bucentaur) protein family, which is conserved from fungi to humans, is classified by the presence of an ~80 amino acid sequence at the C-terminus called BCNT-C. Family members in fungi, flies, fish, and chicken play

Ancient DNA supports the western Carpathian Basin as a corridor of the Neolithic expansion

Szécsényi-Nagy et al. reported in a recent paper an exceptional large Neolithic mitochondrial (mtDNA) and Y-chromosomal DNA dataset from the East-Central European Carpathian Basin. The study region was an essential waypoint on the Continental route of the

What’s in your water? Using DNA to keep drinking waters clean

Turn on a tap, and many of us will be greeted with safe and clean drinking water. This is something that people living in developed nations often take for granted, as contaminated drinking water is a significant

Yarrowia lipolytica: how a yeast becomes a workhorse for biotechnology

Yarrowia lipolytica is a yeast species belonging to the Ascomycota fungi phylum (like the well-known baker’s and brewer’s yeasts, both from Saccharomyces cerevisiae species). This innocuous yeast can be found in a large range of ecosystems (soils,