Tag Archives: tumor

The right tool for the right job – it is brain surgery after all!

Getting drugs into the brain to help treat cancer or neurological diseases like Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s is pretty difficult. Generally speaking you can’t just take a pill or get an injection as the brain is protected by

Radiotherapy for prostate cancer: restrictions for the treatment of recurrent disease

Patients with prostate cancer who are treated with radiotherapy are not always cured. Depending on their pre-treatment risk factors (most importantly the stage of the tumour), they are at risk of recurrent disease. These recurrences often present

Defeating cancer by taking advantage of its inbuilt frailties

The treatment of cancer is a conflicting and complex process; the drugs that are used to kill cancer cells are also toxic to your healthy tissues. However, the different physiology of tumors provides a route to deliver

Milk exosomes for drug delivery

The need to effectively deliver drugs to target site has employed a multitude of substances varying from biological to a chemical nature and solid metals for the preparation of tiny drug delivery vesicles called nanoparticles. However, factors

Side effects of radiation therapy: Why me?

Most lung cancers are treated with radiation therapy, often in high doses.  Although these treatments are absolutely required to prolong life (by killing the tumor or slowing its growth), radiation treatment can have negative side effects that

Importance of updating prognostic predictions: an example from breast cancer

Today prognostic prediction models are an integral part of clinical practice in many fields. They are typically used to access the risk of an event in the future after a well-defined starting point, for instance the risk

The many faces of macrophages in lung cancer

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, accounting for more deaths than breast, prostate, and colon cancer combined. Within the past decade, the role of the immune system in the development and progression of

The molecular analysis of tumor cells in pancreatic tissue – searching for a needle in a haystack

In cancer research usually the tumor cell specific abnormalities are of interest: gene mutations, production of abnormal proteins, production of abnormal quantity of proteins, tumor cells treatment response. But the molecular analysis of pancreatic tumor samples poses

Combinatorial cancer therapies: too many “good guys” don’t do always good!

“Μέτρον άριστον” (Metron ariston) is an ancient Greek phrase, attribute to Cleobulus (6th century BC), one of the Seven Sages of Antiquity, and is translated, as “Moderation is the best”. This was meant to be applied to

A replacement for chemotherapy?

Metastasis is a process where cancer cells of primary tumors gain properties enabling them to escape from the primary tumor and move to a secondary location in the body where they develop additional tumors. This event in

Valproic acid treatment for brain tumors

Tumors arising in the brain represent only 2% of all cancers diagnosed in the United States with 23,000 new cases and 14,000 deaths annually.  The World Health Organisation (WHO) classifies brain tumors from grade 1 to grade

Could a newly-discovered bacteria contribute to cancer?

For many years, doctors and scientists have known that certain viruses, such as human papilloma virus (HPV), are capable of causing cancer.  Until recently, bacteria were ignored as potential carcinogens.  This changed with the discovery that Helicobacter

Neurothekeomas, uncommon benign tumors of peripheral nerve

Neurothekeomas are uncommon benign neoplasms with a peripheral nerve sheath origin. This tumor usually involves dermis and is described as a small, solitary, slow growing and reddish to flesh-colored nodule or papule. Neurothekeoma preferentially affects the central aspect of

Spinal tumors in children: a rare disease

Tumors of the Central Nervous System (CNS) are one of the first causes of morbidity and mortality in children in developed countries. Among them, spinal tumors are estimated to account for less than 10% of the cases,

The thymus: a small organ with a mighty big function

The thymus lies in the chest behind the breastbone and above the heart. Relatively large in infancy, it increases in size until puberty and thereafter shrinks to only a few grams in old age. It consists of

How can cancer cells use hydrogen peroxide to strive?

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a well-known antiseptic used in our homes since the 1920s. But did you know that our cells produce this molecule and that at low concentrations H2O2 instructs our cells to do different things,

Using tumor DNA to refine lung cancer staging and treatment

The treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is guided by disease stage as assessed by clinical and pathologic criteria.  Clinical tumor stage is determined by imaging including computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron

Small-molecule RETRA is effective against a fatal childhood cancer

The bone tumor Ewing’s sarcoma is one of the most aggressive cancers in childhood and adolescence. Before the era of chemotherapy, more than 90% of Ewing’s sarcoma patients succumbed to their disease. With the introduction of intensive

Silence the uncontrolled cancer cells’ growth by controlling cellular senescence

When toxic damage caused by environmental or internal stressors accumulates cells can either stop proliferation permanently ( cellular senescence ) or die. Cell death is a common goal of existing cancer therapies, yet cellular senescence is increasingly

Many factors determine prognosis in resected lung cancer. Is visceral pleural involvement one of them?

Prognosis after pulmonary resection for primary lung cancer is closely related to tumor stage, since stage predicts the risk recurrence. Lung cancer staging is based on the TNM system that evaluates tumor size and contiguous tissue infiltration