Tag Archives: oxygen

How mitochondria “sense” and respond to changes in oxygen concentration in vivo

AoS. How mitochondria sense

Mitochondria – intracellular organelles – are our organism’s “powerhouse”, the main oxygen sensors that play the signaling role as modulators of oxygen consumption and regulators of the rate of oxygen delivery from the extracellular environment. Changes in

Oxygen starvation promotes pro-tumorigenic cytokine expression

Oxygen Starvation Promotes Pro-Tumorigenic Cytokine Expression. AoS

Identification of the factors that trigger tumor formation and metastasis is a problem that has persisted in cancer research since its inception. To date, studies have focused on chemical signaling compounds that are part of the secretome

Look ma, no air

link between aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration

Until recently, it has been conventional thinking that mammals cannot live without oxygen. This has been challenged by studies demonstrating survival of mole rats without oxygen for extended periods of time. The ability of mammalian cells to

Under pressure: a stem cell’s journey home

A Stem Cell’s Journey Home

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) involves breathing in pure oxygen at an air pressure three times higher than atmospheric pressure. This allows more oxygen to enter the lungs, dissolve into the circulation, and ultimately reach cells. The future

Mimicking enzymes using artificial proteins

Critical to life on earth is the ability of proteins called enzymes to catalyze a wide range of chemical reactions, such as producing essential molecules by breaking down food in humans, and producing oxygen from water in

Unregulated oxygen levels in mammalian cell culture changes cell physiology

As aerobic organisms we continuously utilize oxygen from the surrounding environment which ultimately participates in the formation of useful bioenergetic intermediates. Approximately 21% of the air we breathe is composed of oxygen, but the quantity of oxygen

Biocatalysts for hydrogen fuel cell: Biology’s unique way to prevent breakdown by oxygen

Hydrogen could fuel the future! Together with oxygen, hydrogen can be converted to electricity with only water as an exhaust product. The conversion from hydrogen to electricity is done in fuel cells, which require a platinum catalyst.

Impacts of life at 2300 m

Populations all over the world live high up in the mountains. The main mountain ranges with long term settlements include the Himalayas in Asia, the Andes in South America and the Ethiopian highlands in Africa. Researchers could

Global electronic properties dominate the reactivity of silver clusters with up to nano sizes

A metal block is composed of extremely large amount of metal atoms, while metal clusters consist of only two to about one hundred atoms. They stand for the transition between individual atoms and the smallest particles which

Metal–organic framework for “NO” sensing!

Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical which is found to prevail as a colourless gas. It has a very short life-time (of few seconds) and yet regulates several biological processes in living systems. For its participation

How antioxidants may have a pro-oxidant effect?

The main function of the consumption of antioxidants is to strengthen the activity of enzymatic antioxidant systems of our cells and this is intended to prevent or delay oxidative stress caused by the increase of reactive oxygen

Out of thin air – how marine bacteria beat nitrogen limitation

Nitrogen (N), one of life’s most important building blocks, is often in short supply; both on land and in the ocean (Fig. 1). This shortage means that N is often the factor limiting the growth and abundance

Fragments of erythrocyte membranes are not only able to stop the bleeding, but also are able to prevent the spread of thrombosis

Red blood cells (RBCs), also called erythrocytes, are the most common type of blood cell and principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues. Human erythrocytes develop from stem cells into mature erythrocytes in about 7 days. When matured, in a healthy individual these

Plant flavonoids prevent cancer progression through suppression of new blood vessel formation

Flavonoids are a sub-family of polyphenolic compounds. They are abundantly found in plants and known to have inhibitory properties in the initiation, promotion and progression of invasive cancers. Cancer progression is a complex process. It is mainly

The first case of transcatheter intervention in an adult with Cor Triatriatum Sinister

Breathing was difficult on 4 liters of oxygen. Her weight had slipped below 100 pounds. For 51 years there was a defect in her heart, a membrane that split her left upper heart chamber, the left atrium,

What is the right blood transfusion trigger?

Blood transfusions are used in medical practice every day all over the world. Their use is largely aimed at restoration of the necessary number of red blood cells (erythrocytes), which main goal is to transport the oxygen

Killing microbes with red light

Photosensitization is a process in which a chemical compound (photosensitizer) that absorbs energy from light is able to transfer that energy to oxygen molecules. As a consequence, reactive oxygen species (ROS), highly toxic to living cells, are

Mitochondrial ROS and cancer drug resistance

The repetitive and continuous circle of resistance to anti-cancer agents was a primary focus of the above-titled articles recently published in Pharmacological Research. Gaining a basic understanding of why so many (possibly all) drugs currently available against

Excess oxygen worsens actual oxygen supply to the heart muscle in pigs

The use of supplemental oxygen in acute medical care is perceived beneficial by many health care professionals. However, current guidelines limit the excess use of oxygen after successful resuscitation following cardiac arrest. This recommendation is based on

Newborn pulse oximetry screening is not just for heart defects

Measuring the arterial oxygen content (saturation) of the blood is easily done by pulse oximetry. In newborn infants a probe emitting and absorbing light is put on the hand or foot (or booth) and a reliable result