Tag Archives: epigenetics

Epigenetic phenotype diversification helps animals to adapt to changing and new environments

AoS. Epigenetic phenotype diversification helps animals to adapt to changing

There is increasing evidence that epigenetic phenotype variation can contribute to environmental adaptation, speciation and evolution. Epigenetic changes of the phenotype are caused by differences in gene expression rather than by alteration of the genetic code. Epigenetic

Invasion of science and nature by the parthenogenetic marbled crayfish

AoS. Invasion of science and nature by the parthenogenetic marbled crayfish.

The marbled crayfish or Marmorkrebs, Procambarus virginalis (Fig. 1A), is the only obligately parthenogenetic decapod crustacean. It was detected in 1995 in the German aquarium trade. With almost 300 publications, it is now one of the best-studied

Developmental origins of aging trajectory

Traditionally, gerontological research is focused on later stages of life cycle. Accumulating evidence, however, suggests that the rate of aging-associated functional decline (senescence) as well as the risk for chronic pathological conditions can originate early in life.

RNA-mediated epigenetic inheritance

The central dogma of molecular biology, which is still largely considered one of the most core fundamental concepts in the field, states that DNA is transcribed to RNA, which is then translated into protein. Although this statement

Evolution and adaptive value of yeast epigenetic memory of previous growth in galactose

Cellular adaptation to environmental changes often entails transcriptional responses that promote survival and proliferation. In certain cases, “memory” of previous experiences promotes a much faster transcriptional response upon second exposure to the same stimuli, leading to faster

Differential diagnosis of neurodevelopmental syndromes using blood episignatures

Neurodevelopmental syndromes refer to a group of inborn diseases that present with impairments of the growth and development of the brain, and facial and somatic dimorphism. The differential diagnosis of these disorders is challenging because of the

Understanding the many languages of RNA

The influence of DNA base modifications such as cytosine methylation in gene regulation is well established. These DNA modifications can act as epigenetic, non-nucleotide changes, modifications that ultimately shape the phenotype of the organism. Recently, a new

Type 2 diabetes can originate in utero

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is considered to be adult-onset disease, since it typically occurred in middle-age and old adults. There is, hovewer, increasing evidence that risk for development of T2D can be influenced not only by adult

Interrogating the genome: approaches and tools for accessing genomic databases

Reference genome DNA sequences for thousands of species have now been determined, and deposited in freely – accessible public databases. The availability of these genomic data has revolutionized biology, enabling insights into the evolution of life on

Diagnosing Fragile X syndrome by DNA methylation array

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common genetic condition which causes a range of developmental problems and intellectual disability in males. It is caused by a mutation in the fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR1), which

Promoting myelination as a strategy to rescue depressive-like behavior

All of our activities-e.g. reading, walking, and thinking- are controlled by our brain. The brain is mainly composed of two types of cells, neurons and glial cells, which communicate with each other every second (or millisecond) and

Low salt intake during pregnancy

All cells of an organism share the same DNA sequence from the time they are stem cells until they are fully differentiated, differing greatly in relation to the profile of expressed genes. Changes in gene expression which

Control of cell identity by the nuclear architecture

In a complex organism, all cells use their identical genetic potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types characterized by different morphology, nuclear shape and function. This is possible because only a small subset of genes

Hybrid mimics, a new strategy for increased food production

The growth of the world’s population is presenting a major challenge to agricultural industries to produce enough food for all people.  We have been carrying out research which could provide a component of the needed food supply