Tag Archives: gene
DNA is a double strand molecule composed of nucleotide subunits, consisting of three components: a sugar, a phosphate group and one of four nitrogen-containing base, (Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine or Thymine). Among humans, DNA molecules are 99.9% identical.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to act by directly suppressing the activity of cyclooxygenase, the key enzyme catalyzing the biosynthesis of prostaglandin, which induces inflammation. Therefore, NSAIDs are usually used for treating pain, inflammation, and fever.
Transgenes are genes that have moved from a donor to a recipient organism via a process known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT), in the absence of sexual reproduction. The genetic modification of crop species involves the deliberate
Tumor suppressor genes are one of the body’s defenses against uncontrolled growth of tumor cells. When these genes are ‘silenced,’ or prevented from doing their work, the abnormal cells grow unchecked, usually with fatal consequences to the
Pseudomonas represents an abundant bacterial group that can live in the soil. In this habitat many organisms like fungi, bacteria, plants or insects live together, often intensively interacting in close communities. The composition of these communities is
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive dementia, affecting over 20 million people worldwide, mainly adult subjects in advanced age characterized by loss of neurons and the presence of amyloid plaques in the brain. Several families have been
Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunus thynnus), the largest of the tuna species, is migratory top predator inhabiting the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Extremely well adapted to life in open waters, they are able to traverse
Neuropathic pain (NP) is caused by the damage of the nervous system and one of the most common types of intractable pain. It is often severe, persistent, and refractory to available therapies. Although various analgesic has been
Protein synthesis is an energetically costly cellular process, in part due to the metabolic requirements of ribosome assembly and gene-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) production. Consequently, biosynthetic flux through the protein translation pathway is tightly regulated while translational
Blood pressure (BP) is the driving force that distributes the blood to the organs of the body according to their instantanous needs. It may be increased by pressor agents acting on the heart, vessels, and blood volume,
Genome sequence of the natural antagonist Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79 against fungal plant diseases
In agriculture we have to deal with a huge variety of diseases caused by phytopathogenic bacteria, fungi or insects for instance. Many of these plant pathogens live in the soil and attack the respective cultivar at the
Why do people undergo genetic testing – for personal benefits, for family, or for science and society?
Genetic testing is an important tool to detect gene mutations (e.g., BRCA1/2) that increase the risk of cancer, especially among those who are known to have higher chances of carrying these mutations such as Ashkenazi Jewish individuals.
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare complex multisystem genetic disorder. It is recognized as the most common known genetic cause of obesity in humans which can be life-threatening, if not controlled. PWS affects about 1 in 15,000
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease, caused by a dysfunction (mutation) in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. This disease affects a numerous organs particularly the lungs and digestive system. CF is characterized by
Since the early 1900’s, scientists have known that cells are composed of multiple components, including small molecules, DNA, RNA, and protein. Over the past fifty years, scientists have systematically measured these individual components and their interactions. Despite
In English, we read in one direction – from left to right across the page. We need to read words in a certain order, so that the information makes sense to us. In the cells of our
The ENCODE project is a massive data-collection effort set out to understand the function of the human genome. The collection comprises many types of genomic data, including the localization of transcription factors onto DNA. Transcription factors are